Hematoxylin is extracted from heartwood of the Logwood, commonly used as a natural dye, and oxidized to its quinoid product hematein. Hence Logwood extracts include both of hematoxylin and hematein, and are usually used in staining as lakes of the oxidation product hematein with metal ions. For example, hematein-aluminum is the most widely used in stain biological tissue. However, the behavior of hematoxylin in solutions has not been elucidated yet. In this paper, the oxidation of hematoxylin available as a reagent at various conditions in solutions and its adsorption by silk were investigated. The UV/VIS spectra of hematoxylin in aqueous solutions and on silk after dyeing were recorded at various pH values. The surface colors on silk fabrics were shown as K/S values, which were calculated by the Kubelka-Munk formula. As a result, the color of the dyed silk was affected not only by hematoxylin existing in the solutions, but also by the conditions such as pH and temperature. The optimum condition was determined as pH8 (20°C), pH7 (40°C), and pH6 (60°C) at dyeing for 120min.
The functional garments are important protective device for the disciplinary forces, such as police, fireman and soldier. Typical protective garments are made of special non-stretchable fabric and hence can restrict the movement of the wearer if the garment is not designed properly. A protective garment that can ensure maximal range-of-motion can be a difference of life and death when the disciplinary force is on duty. There are many aspects of range-of-motion. In the current study, we address the question of the appropriate amount of dynamic ease allowance (movement ease) required for any given height that the arm is supposed to reach. The relationship among the dynamic ease allowance, under arm sleeve length, and side seam length was derived, by using the rod joint model of the human being and assuming the motion is a cross-sectional one along the frontal plane. Sixty subjects wore the special net garment to record the reference of zero dynamic ease allowance, and then the adjustable garments of different scye depth, which is related to the dynamic ease allowance. The subjects were asked to move their arm along a vertical plane, from rest position to the maximum height that they can reach. Such motions were recorded by a motion capturing system. The experimental data was compared to the theoretical prediction. Since the analysis was conducted using the 3-D data and the garment measurements must be converted from the 3-D environment (when the garment is worn) to the 2-D environment (when the garment is not worn). The conversion approximation is also presented. Consequently, when the required posture is known, the required scye depth and the required dynamic seam allowance can be found. The armhole can be designed accordingly.
We have investigated the effects of disulphide bond scission induced by peracetic acid and thioglycolic acid on the dye uptake of dinuclear oxidation dyes into wool fibers. The wool samples which the disulphide linkage was severed by both peracetic acid and thioglycolic acid were dyed the faint color compared to the intact wool sample. The increasing in the peracetic acid treatment time leads to more decrease in the dye uptake. These treatments lead to a slight decrease in the metal ion content in the modified wool fibers. This decrease, however, was ensured to have little effect on the dye uptakes. Consequently, this result implies that the disulphide bond within the wool fibers plays an important role in developing the colored products in the fibers. From these finding, we assumed that the disulphide bond in keratin components is attributed to the regeneration of catalytic ability of metal ions by conjugated redox reaction due to the disulphide exchange reaction, and then proposed the cyclically catalytic mechanism in which a conjugated redox reaction was carried out across the intercuticular material.
Wasted Green tea leaves were ground by different methods and papers containing the ground wasted Green tea leaves were prepared. The ground wasted Green tea leaves and the papers containing the ground wasted Green tea leaves were subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy for morphological observation. The observation revealed that a mass-colloider ground wasted Green tea leaves to very thin films. As the clearance of the mass-colloider was widened from 40 μm to 150 μm, the ground wasted Green tea leaves somewhat increased in thickness and turned into partially folded structures. In addition, after ground, the wasted Green tea leaves showed spiral vessels and vascular bundles extended into coil shapes by shear at the grinding. In contrast, wasted Green tea leaves ground with a ball mill were lumps ranging a few to 400 μm in size. The ground wasted Green tea leaves were used to prepare papers containing wasted Green tea leaves, which were observed. The observation revealed that papers containing wasted Green tea leaves ground with the mass-colloider had a layered structure in which the thin films of wasted Green tea leaves were layered in tight adhesion with networks of pulp fibers. In contrast, papers containing wasted Green tea leaves ground with the ball mill had a coarse structure in which lumps of the wasted Green tea leaves were buried in the network of pulp fibers. In addition, the papers containing wasted Green tea leaves ground by the two different methods were examined for tensile strength and bursting strength. The examination revealed little differences resulting from the different grinding methods, the mass-colloider and the ball mill, or from difference in the clearance of the mass-colloider. The result showed that the mechanical properties were mainly controlled by the pulp fibers in the papers containing wasted Green tea leaves and the wasted Green tea leaves made little contribution to the mechanical properties. On the other hand, papers containing wasted Green tea leaves were lower in stiffness than 100wt% pulp papers; especially papers containing wasted Green tea leaves ground with the ball mill were very soft. Furthermore, an examination of papers containing wasted Green tea leaves for permeability revealed that papers containing wasted Green tea leaves ground with the ball mill had much higher permeability than 100wt% pulp papers.
Kroy-treated wool and Dichlorocyanuric acid treated wool (DCCA-treated wool) were selected for wool fibers shrink proofed with chlorine. The laundering treatment with domestic alkaline detergents included any proteolytic enzyme decreased the strength and elongation at break of DCCA-treated wool with increasing of the laundering treatment time, but led to no significant changes for intact and Kroy-treated wool. From SEM images of fiber surface and cross section of each wool sample before and after the laundering treatment, it was found that cell membrane complex (CMC) regions in both cuticle and cortex phase of DCCA-treated wool fibers were damaged by the detergents. It was suggested that CMC structure of DCCA-treated wool fibers was deteriorated extremely, but that of Kroy-treated wool fibers was almost retained its original form as well as intact wool fibers. It was consider that DCCA-treated wool was decreased of the structural function of CMC to resist entering of enzyme and surfactant in cortex region, and it was became easy to receive any action of the detergent.
Physical properties of cotton fabric, which was dyed with natural indigo reduced by fermentation, were studied. Cotton fabric showed maximum value of tensile energy, WT, tensile strength and abrasion resistance at dye uptake of 44 mg/g. Mean of friction coefficient, MIU, showed a maximum at dye uptake of 11.6 mg/g and then decreased with an increase in dye uptake. XRD reflection proved that cotton fiber was dyed with natural indigo in aggregate state. Natural indigo dyeing gave cotton fabric smaller air permeability, smaller heat conductivity and smaller initial maximum value of heat flux than synthetic indigo dyeing with an increase in dyeing times. The cotton fabric dyed with natural indigo exhibited larger mechanical properties except for abrasion resistance than those with synthetic indigo reduced by hydrosulfite at dye uptake of about 45 mg/g. It was suggested that natural indigo dyeing changed the structure of cotton fiber in association with high-order structure of fiber.