A light fastness characteristic of Carthamin dyed on silk fabric was examined. The monochromatic light at every 20nm over 260-700 nm was exposed to the samples using a large spectrograph. An action spectrum of Carthamin fading was measured under a constant irradiation energy. A strong fading peak was observed in the visible light range of 500-600 nm as well as in UVA range. The absorbance spectrum of the dyed sample surface coincided fairly well with the action spectrum. On the other hand, the sample was exposed to sunlight under the simultaneous measurement of UV-A and UV-B. The fading characteristics were well interpreted using the action spectrum.
Soluble deoxyaminocelluloses (DACs) with degree of substitution, DS(NH2), up to 0.64 were prepared by the nucleophilic substitution of soluble deoxycellulose p-toluenesulfonates, DCTs, which had prepared from dissolving pulp and powdered cellulose dissolved in LiCl/N, N-dimethylacetamide system, with ammonia in dimethylsulfoxide. Compared with DCT prepared from powdered cellulose, that from dissolving pulp needed long reaction time and high temperature to obtain soluble DACs, and obtained DACs showed high yield, high DS(NH2) and high intrinsic viscosity, [η]. Ability of the DACs added to bentonite aqueos suspension as a flocculant was examined and found that settling rate of the yielded flocs showed a maximum in respect to the amount of DAC added and the maximum settling rate was higher at higher [η] of DAC. The filtration rate of the flocculated suspension and the transparency of the filtrate were higher at more amount of DAC and at higher [η] of it. The settling rate found in the examination using DAC with the heighest [η] was almost comparable to that found for chitosan. From these results, it may be concluded that dissolving pulp is more advantageous than powdered cellulose for preparation of DAC as a flocculant, and that DAC is useful as a flocculant like chitosan, in spite of its lower [η] than that of chitosan.
The fabric rustling sounds were evaluated subjectively from two points of views such as unpleasantness and the similarity of sounds. Some sound parameters are also obtained by the recorded sounds. When subjects evaluate the fabric sound as unpleasant, the subjective evaluation is mostly influenced by the overall sound level. It was found that the sounds, which do not show any obvious peaks in the power spectrum shape, were evaluated as more unpleasant. The similarity of sounds obtained by the subjective test was analyzed by statistical Multidimensional Scaling analysis (MDS). The results showed that the similarity in the power spectra shapes of sounds was related to the subjective evaluation of similarity.
Linen fabrics were treated with three kinds of commercial enzyme mixtures under the same condition. The relative residual pectic substances on the fiber surface and the amount of pectic substances extracted from the fiber were evaluated. In addition, the change of percentage shrinkages, weight losses, tensile and tearing strength for the treated fabrics were measured. Furthermore the mechanical properties of the fabrics were also measured with KES-F evaluation system. The effects were compared with those obtained by alkaline boiling. It was revealed that Ultrazyme treatment reduced pectic substances in the fabrics efficiently, the reduction of the tearing strength by the treatment was lower than that of alkaline treatment, and the action of the enzyme mixtures on linen was weaker than that on ramie.