We take up the surface roughness and slipping resistance as the tactile parameter to explore the surface properties of Shingosen fabrics. Thirty kinds of Singosen fabrics to be classified into four groups: Peach Skin (PS), Rayon Dry (RD), New Silky (NS) and New Worsted (NW) were chosen. Three sensory tests: Surface Rubbing test (SR), Folded Rubbing test (FR) and Folded Slipping test (FS) were selected, and twenty-two students assessed the surface roughness and slipping resistance. Relationships between the results of three sensory test and four Shingosen groups were obtained as follows; 1) PS is not rough and has large slipping resistance with the low weight. 2) RD is largely rough and has small slipping resistance with the low weight. 3) NS has small slipping resistance with the low weight. 4) NW is not smooth and has large slipping resistance with the low weight. Yet it slips with applied force. Based on the assess of SR, FR and FS, the fabrics were classified into four clusters. Cluster 1 was coincide with PS and Cluster 2 was coincide with RD. But, Cluster 3 and 4 were composed several groups of Shingosen. Furthermore, by Quantification theory II, it was possible to discriminate among the four groups of Shingosen based on three sensory test of the surface roughness and slipping resistance.
Test methods were described for measuring the flammability of materials used in chemical protective clothing. Vertical and 45° type flame test procedures were used to evaluate and classify the flammability of selected materials. Test protocols were developed to measure the resistance to hot surface contact and to low heat similar to the maximum temperatures expected under severe storage conditions. This research evaluated the effect of a chemical protective suit layer on the thermal protective performance of Nomex fabric and firefighter's turnout coat ensemble. Analytical methods were used to assess the effects of convective heat exposure on the thermophysical properties of chemical protective suit materials.
Copoly (amic acid) s have been synthesized from pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 3, 3', 4, 4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) with p-phenylene-diamine (PDA) at room temperature. Uniaxial drawn Copoly (amic acid) (PAA) films which were obtained by swollen drawing in ethylene glycol were thermally imidized and annealed. The mechanical properties, WAXD patterns, TMA, and density changes of these polyimide (PI) films were measured. The main results were as follows; 1) The orientation of these PI films depends on the state of swollen PAAs in solvents. 2) In respect to effect of flexible BPDA content in the units, the maximum values of tensile modulus and strength of PI films are 163.2GPa and 2.63GPa, respectively for 2:1 copolymer of PI (PMDA; BPDA/PDA); (PMDA33%). 3) WAXD results showed that, polymer chain molecules which are both BPDA/PDA and PMDA/PDA component in this copolymer are preferentially oriented to the drawing direction. 4) The introduction of the semi-rigid BPDA/PDA molecules in PMDA/PDA polymer chain units could improve the tensile, mechanical properties for rigid-rod PI (PMDA/PDA) films.
Sulfation of carboxymethyl-chitin (CM-chitin) was investigated. CM-chitin was converted to tri-n-butylammonium salt, in order to increase its solubility in DMF, then sulfated using sulfur trioxide-pyridine complex. The degree of sulfation of the sulfated carboxymethyl-chitin (SCM-chitin) obtained from CM-chitin with DS 0.50 and 0.80 (CM50, CM80) was in the range of 0.19 to 1.20. From the 13C-NMR analysis, degree of N-deacetylation of CM80 was 0.30 and the reactivity of hydroxyl and amino groups against SO3-pyridine is in the order of C6-OH>C2-NH2>>C3-OH. On the other hand, degree of deacetylation of CM50 was 0.20 and sulfation occurred at C6-OH and C2-NH2. The X-ray diffraction diagrams showed that crystallinity of CM80 was lower than CM50.
A treatment of an industrial wastewater containing disperse dye with the fungus Cunninghamella polymorpha was investigated. The resting fungus cell increased the transparency value of the wastewater from 21 degrees to 43 degrees in 6h. The clearage rate was 1.7 degree (g-wet cell)-1 h-1. On the contrary, the sterilized cell was unable to increase the transparency. The clearage of the wastewater was due to sorption of disperse dye by the fungus cell.
Changes in low-stress mechanical and surface properties of seven cotton fabrics due to a cellulase treatment were examined by the Kawabata's evaluation system method. The induced weight loss of the fabrics was approximately 5%. The cellulase treatment had a tendency to decrease all parameters of bending, shear and surface properties. The majority of the parameters that bore a significant relation to the fabric construction factors were surface properties. Except for bending rigidity, changes in bending and shear parameters were smaller for cotton fabric than for polyester spun fabric, treated with sodium hydroxide. These results confirmed that the hydrolysis of the cotton fabrics by cellulase took place in the interior of the fibers. Changes in primary hand qualities of the cotton fabrics exhibited the following trends: HARI decreased, whereas SHINAYAKASA and KISHIMI increased. These were the same trends shown by a polyester filament fabric, which was treated with sodium hydroxide and became silk-like.