繊維学会誌
Online ISSN : 1884-2259
Print ISSN : 0037-9875
65 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の15件中1~15を表示しています
繊維と工業
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  • 内田 貴, 岡村 政明
    2009 年 65 巻 2 号 p. 41-47
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    In consequence of our previous study revealed the appearance mechanism of a Mokumenui-shibori pattern. Also a simulation program which generates an image of shibori pattern by stitch lengths was developed. The purpose of this study is to establish an objective evaluation of a Mokumenui-shibori pattern. First, in regard to feature extractions of textures, we evaluated two types of Mokumenui-shibori patterns which were created by the simulation program using two types of artificial stitch lengths. One type of artificial stitch lengths had a different standard deviation on stitch lengths, and other type had a peak value in a distribution of stitch lengths. To evaluate two types of patterns, there were three kinds of approaches for feature extractions of textures. One was simply to count the number of a pattern separated and a pattern interrupted in each. Others were to calculate a standard deviation of marginal distribution and a two dimensional power spectrum. Additionally, we calculated a fractal dimensions for evaluation. Then we evaluated some real pattern of Mokumenui-shibori which was simulated by actual stitch lengths. As a result of this study, in comparison with amateurs, there was indicated that patterns by professionals were fine and complicated with directivity kept.
  • 村山 和弘, 追沼 龍三, 西村 真次, 小野寺 泰子
    2009 年 65 巻 2 号 p. 48-56
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The computer program based on our mathematical model of the 1X1rib knitting process can predicted the stitch length and the course length, the yarn tensions in the 1X1 rib knitting zone, the robbing back length on the course or the stitch, RB%, the maximum yarn tension value and position. The effects of the depth of stitch draw, the cam angle, the step length of cam and the input tension on the course length or the stitch length, the yarn tensions in the 1X1 rib knitting zone, the robbing back length on the course or the stitch, RB%, the maximum yarn tension value and position are analyzed theoretical. The results obtained are as follows. 1) The course length increases with the increase of the depth of stitch draw, the cam angle and the step length of cam, but decreases with the increase of the input tension. 2) The robbing back length and RB% increase with the increase of the depth of stitch draw and the input tension, but decreases with the increase of the cam angle and the step length of cam. 3) The maximum tension increases with the increase of the depth of stitch draw, the step length of cam and the input tension, but decreases with the increase of the cam angle.
  • -健常者との比較-
    平林 優子, 駒城 素子, 布施谷 節子, 大村 知子
    2009 年 65 巻 2 号 p. 57-66
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Clothing designs for a shirt suitable for physically disabled persons who spend their days in a sitting position were proposed based on a preliminary study of 25 disabled persons and 11 able-bodied persons. A total of 29 parameters were measured to assess body shape and wearability of proper-sized shirts. Four experimental garments were tested using 12 physically disabled persons who spend their days in the sitting position and able-bodied controls. Factor analysis was performed to ascertain the characteristics of different disabilities. The body angle of the front trunk of some persons with upper extremity disabilities was great, and in terms of wearability, waistline and hem tended to be shifted forward and downward. From a front view, persons with lower extremity disabilities tended to lean to one side\ either to the left or right. Persons with intellectual disabilities tended to lean forward with their upper trunk region, the head tended to protrude forward, and the back tended to be hunched. From the side profile, waistline and hem tended to be either shifted forward and downward or backward and downward. There were almost no differences in fit of shirts between able-bodied individuals and disabled persons who could stand. The results showed that it is easier for persons with disabilities to dress and undress when using partially modified shirts compared to an original proper-sized shirt, and partially modified shirts were also judged to have a more appropriate fit. In particular, adding a pleat at the center back of the shirt to more easily accommodate the hunched back body shape, which is a physical characteristic of disabled persons, was more suitable than wearing a shirt one size larger. Also, the following characteristics are required in shirts for disabled persons primarily in the chair-sitting position roomier fit from around the abdominal circumference to the hem ; shorter front length ; and extra ease in the back of the shirt to make it easier to dress and undress.
  • 寺澤 秀和, 大崎 満
    2009 年 65 巻 2 号 p. 67-72
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Transplanting is routinely performed in crop cultivation. One transplantation method involves the use of seedling pots made of paper (paper pots). Seedlings are raised in the paper pots and are subsequently transplanted. As transplanting is performed by hand or mechanical transplanters, the paper used for the seedling pots needs to be decomposition resistant. In recent years, fully automatic transplanters have been developed, and the demand for a suitable decomposition resistant paper for seedling pots has consequently increased. In order to develop a type of paper that is suitable for any type of seedling raising condition, we investigated a paper that is treated with dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU), which is capable of crosslinking wood polysaccharide. We examined the decomposition resistance, wet strength, and dry strength of the paper, and obtained the following results. 1. The chemical crosslinking of wood polysaccharide provided the paper not only with high wet strength but also with decomposition resistance. This antidecay trait, compared to a synthetic fiber blend or paper incorporating a germicide, was less affected by seedling raising conditions and persisted longer whilst maintaining a better condition. 2. The tearing strength and folding endurance of the paper decreased with the chemical treatment. The causes of this decline are considered to be the decrease in the fiber strength attributable to degradation of the wood cellulose. On the other hand, tensile strength increased since the interfiber bonding was strengthened by the crosslinking reaction.
  • 富田 陽子, 辻 翼, 近藤 哲男
    2009 年 65 巻 2 号 p. 73-79
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Acetobacter xylinum, a Gram-negative bacterium, secretes a cellulose nanofiber into the culture medium, and thereafter the individual secreted nanofibers are assembled to form a 3D network structure as termed "pellicle." The pellicle has unique properties including high water retention ability, biocompatibility, high strength and so on. Therefore, a hydrophobic cellulose nanofiber network sheet was attempted to be fabricated by heat-pressing of metal molds having a micro pattern in order to open further pathways of the pellicle towards potentially versatile materials. From the contact angle measurements, a heating condition at 130deg for 24 hours was the optimal condition for the treatment. ESCA analyses indicated that the increase in hydrophobicity was due to introduction of the ether bonds on the surface. Furthermore, a structural hydrophobic effect such as "Lotus effect" on this sheet was examined by introduction of micro -lattice patterns onto the surface. Finally, the synergistic effect of the heating and micro-patterning was examined. The surface of the sheet was more hydrophobic when the two effects were combined together. This successful method could be generally extended for bio-based materials to provide nano/micro structures with a surface hydrophobic property.
  • Hiroko Hoshizawa, Masahiro Suzuki, Hirofusa Shirai, Kenji Hanabusa, Yo ...
    2009 年 65 巻 2 号 p. 80-87
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Two chiral hydrogelators, L-18ValPyBr and D-18ValPyBr, composed of L- or D-valine, were synthesized. They self-assembled into thin membranes under high concentration and helical nanofibers under low concentration in pure water. Sol-gel transcription reactions were carried out under both acidic and basic conditions using the selfassemblies of these two gelators and the mixtures with CTAC as templates and TEOS as precursor. Under acidic conditions, minimum gel concentrations of L-18ValPyBr and D-18ValPyBr are very low. After sol-gel polymerization, a kind of cotton-like silica constructed by twisted mesoporous silica ribbons was obtained. These ribbons were 60 nm in width and 10 nm in thickness. Under basic conditions, both mesoporous twisted ribbons and nanotubes constructed by tightly coiled ribbons were obtained. Generally, left-handed helical structures were obtained by using L-18ValPyBr, while right-handed helical structures were obtained by using D-18ValPyBr. The morphologies were sensitive to the concentration of NH3. When the concentration of NH3 was 2.5 wt%, twisted ribbons were obtained. When the concentration of NH3 was higher than 5.0 wt%, nanotubes constructed by tightly coiled ribbons were obtained. Mesoporous silica structures in nano- and micro-size were prepared by using the mixtures of L-18ValPyBr and CTAC under both acidic and basic conditions. Under acidic conditions, helical mesoporous fibers were obtained, and their diameter was increased with increasing the ratio of CTAC to gelator. The nanofibers obtained under basic conditions were shorter than those obtained under acidic conditions. The mesoporous channels were parallel each other and running along the axis of nanofibers.
技術報文
  • 植田 浩安, 前嶋 義夫, 辻本 裕, 徳村 啓雨, 實野 孝久
    2009 年 65 巻 2 号 p. 88-92
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the textile industry, new technology and high value-added product using laser are expected. We have developed laser marking fiber and micro-marking on this fiber using YAG laser. But YAG laser is too expensive, so the laser device with a higher cost performance is demanded. An excellent light source, laser diode (LD) presents several advantages such as small size, light weight, high efficiency, and low cost. We have developed a violet laser diode(VLD wave length : 405nm) for direct processing. Because wavelength of VLD is short, VLD is expected to produce a small beam spot. A precisely focused VLD beam has been used for microscopic color marking of dye to PET material as well as color marking on fibers. The laser light of a single-mode VLD is collimated, and the wavefront aberration of this beam is measured and corrected so that the light can be precisely focused. This corrected light is precisely focused and the dye and pigment applied to plastic surfaces is irradiated. As the result, we were able to achieve color-micro-marking without using any absorbents on the irradiated portion. The scheme has enabled 100 micron and 200 micron microscopic character marking, and microscopic marking to polyester fibers has been achieved.
ノート
  • 三浦 清, 今田 邦彦, 小田木 勝英
    2009 年 65 巻 2 号 p. 93-96
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the previous paper, we reported the new dyeing method of using laser dyeing equipment for dyeing aramid fabrics with disperse dyes and vat dyes using an infrared rays absorber. The new findings reported in this paper are as follows ; 1) We found the existence of many kinds of vat dyes that have absorption in the infrared region, and using these type of vat dyes it is possible to dye aramid fiber without using infrared absorber material. 2) It was found that the temperature on the surface of the fiber caused by the laser irradiation reached 350-400deg. 3) It was found that the aramid fiber can be dyed by using vat dyes at the temperature of about 350deg using an electric furnace.
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