Maturity of cotton fiber must be based on the cellulose and non-cellulose contents from biochemical point of view. Nevertheless, up to the present, the physical measurement method of maturity has been generally based on the geometrical shape of lint. Then, in order to propose a new concept for the determination of maturity based on chemical analysis, the relation of cellulose and non-cellulose substances (nitrogen, phosphorus, ash, wax and pectate) to maturity (immaturity ratio by arealometer, maturity index by causticaire method) and fineness (micronaire fineness, arealometer fineness, causticaire fineness) must be made clear. The cotton variety used for this research was “Rikuchimen Kan-no No.I, ” a sort of upland cotton. In addition, the cause of various troubles on the cotton-spinning process of immatured lint in raw cotton is discussed.
The raw cotton with much sugar content, it is said, causes various troubles on the cottonspinning process and also injure the appearance of yarn. In order to elucidate these causes, the relations of the reduced and total sugars to maturity (immaturity ratio by arealometer, maturity index by causticaire method) and to fineness (micronaire fineness. arealometer fineness, causticaire fineness) are made clear. The cotton variety used for this research was “Rikuchimen Kan-no No.I.” a sort of upland cotton. 1. Reduced sugar contents of the extreamely immatured lint (micronaire fineness; below 1.2μg/in.) is above 30% (oven dry basis), but that of matured cottpn fiber (micronaire fineness; 5.8μg/in.) is 0.1% (oven dry basis) and the reduced sugar content of lint rapidly decreases at it matures. 2. Reduced sugar contents of immatured lint dyed green by differential dyeing method (immatured lint below micronaire fineness 2.5μg/in. and maturity index 60) are about 7% in minimum and about 33% in maximum, and are extreamely high compared with matured lint. These reduced sugar in immatured lint consists of glucose, fructose and pentose. 3. In addition, the cause of various troubles on the cotton-spinning process of immatured lint in raw cotton is discussed.
A complex-forming ability of condensed phosphates with ferric ion and their effects on raw silk when treated with water containing ferric ion have been investigated. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The complex-forming ability of various condensed phosphates with iron (III): pyro and triphosphate are greater than metaphosphate glass. (2) The dissolving power of each condensed phosphate for sericin is proportional to the weight content. (3) The dissolving power of the condensed phosphates decreases as the iron (III): contents increase. (4) The effect of iron (III): removed from silk is obscure in the range of phosphate content below 0.01g/200cc. But, it is apparent at 0.5g/200cc in order of pyro-and triphosphate; and the effect of meta-phosphate glass has little relation to the weights added. (5) The feel and appearance of the water-treated raw silk: triphosphate is better than the others and sodium metaphosphate glass showed little or no effects. (6) The mixture of soap and condensed phosphates is better than single addition for the feel and appearance of raw silk. (7) The depth of color of the treated silk caused by iron (III) is proportional to the content of iron (III): but in the case of the mixture of soap and condensed phosphates, it decreases more than that in single addition.
The heat conductivity of fibrous materials is one of the most important properties, and depends on many factors such as volume fraction of fiber and mean free path of air molecules, etc. In this paper, the apparent heat conductivities of fibrous materials are measured in varying volume fraction _??_ and pressure of air, According to the theory, the apparent heat conductivity of fibrous materials ka becomes, where k1 and k2 are the heat conductivities of fiber and air respectively. a and b are determined by the distribution function of fiber direction. With increment of volume fraction or mean free path, the heat conductivity of gas decreases, so the relations between ka and _??_ are rather complicated. A brief discussion on these relations are presented which agree with experimental results. Main results are as follows: (1) The apparent heat conductivity of fibrous materials decreases rapidly at first with increment of volume fraction of fiber. As the volume fraction of fiber increases, the derivative _??_ tends to approach zero. (2) When the air is exhaustal at fixed volume fraction, the apparent heat conductivity decreases to a constant value which depends on the volume fraction of fiber. The smaller the volume fraction, the higher becomes the pressure P0, determined by _??_ max, where _??_ is the mean free path of gas molecules which is proportional to P-1. (3) As shown in (1), the apparent heat conductivity of fiber varies with the volume fraction, so from the following relation the true heat conductivity of fiber can be obtained. (4) From the theoretical results, it is deduced that the heat conductivity of fibrous materials becomes smallar as the fibre diameter becomes thinner.
Specific gravities of pure PVC-fibers drawn to several multiple drawn ratio were measured at 30°C. These were in linear correlation with the drawn ratio, L, within experimental range. And from these data, relative crystallinity was obtained. Also from X-ray diffraction diagrams for these drawn PVC-fibers the dimension of unit cell of PVC-crystal was calculated as follows; a=10.1A, b(fiber period)=5.1A, c=5.6A, and β(inclination angle)=78°. Furthermore, empirical formula with respect to crystallinity, X and L was established, as: X=1.37 L-0.48 for these PVC-fibers
Since, in thermal shrinkage of pure PVC-fiber, the net deformation would be the difference between the true thermal shrinking and creep deformation owing to hanged load which was used to make the sample fiber straight and length-measurable, the shrinkage curves involving maximum point could be obtained sometimes according to experimental conditions. Now, several correlations about this maximum point with hanged load, S2, shrinking temperature, T, and multiple drawn ratio, L, can be derived as follows; where, tm is elapsed time to the maximum shrinkage point, and γm and γ_??_ are the shrinking deformation at the maximum point and free shrinking deformation without any load, respectively.
The flow curves of three kinds of cellulose materials such as purified cotton and wood pulps in cupriethylenediamine solution (CED) and cuprammonium solution (CAM) have been measured over a wide range of the velocity gradients. The viscosity measurements were carried out by employing a capillary viscometer with continuously varying pressure head, which is a modification of the viscometer described by Maron, Krieger and Sisko. The solvents themselves behave as Newtonian liquids, whereas the cellulose solutions manifest non-Newtonian behavior unless the concentration is extremely low. For concentrations less than 3/[η], the wood pulps in CED behave practically as Newtonian liquid, and therefore it seems that the one-point method can be applied satisfactorily for determining the intrinsic viscosity. In the case of the cellulose having higher molecular weights, such as cotton, much more dilute solution must be used in order to apply the one-point method. Although the concentrated solutions exhibit remarkable non-Newtonian behavior, the apparent viscosities become constant at low velocity gradients. Hence it may be concluded that the measurement of the intrinsic viscosity by means of the one-point method will be desirably performed with dilute solution at as low a velocity gradient as possible. Even the most dilute solution of a dissolving pulp for viscose in CAM (0.522g/100ml) in the present work exhibits non-Newtonian behavior, suggesting that the current method (JIS P 8101) must be employed carefully for determining the relative viscosity of cellulose having a higher degree of polymerization.
In order to speed up the determination of molecular weight distribution of cellulose, standing time for precipitation was decreased. The fractionation procedure was carried out in small volume of the solution. The results were as follows: 1) 0.1_??_0.5g samples and 200ml. solvent were used in this method, although 3_??_5g samples and 1 liter solvent are used in the ordinary method. This procedure gave similar distribution curve and reproducibility as the ordinary method, although only one-fifth time of the ordinary method was required. 2) The maximum which appeared in the distribution curve shifted in this method toward higher molecular weight, as compared with the ordinary method. 3) The uniformity of the first fraction depends on the standing time for precipitation. The first fraction which is obtained in the minimum standing time contains less low molecular component than that in 45 hours. It may be considered that the precipitate will adsorbe selectively the low molecular component and will be depolymerized, when the procedure required a longer time. 4) It was observed that the fractionation from 0.25% solution was slightly sharper than that from 0.5% solution.
With the same samples described in parts V, VI and VII, the morphological transformation of wood cellulose fibers during sulfite cooking, hot alkaline purification and hypochlorite bleaching was investigated by modifying Heide's phosphoric acid method. (K. Heide, Faserforsch. u. Textiltechn., 3, 469 (1952)). The swelling and dissolution state of cellulose fiber at each pulping stage in 78, 79 and 80% H3PO4 was observed by phase-contrast microscope. Simultaneously, the determination of haze value of cellulose solution in 79.5% H3PO4 was also carried out as a newly proposed method by us for estimation of cellulose reactivity. The results ware as follows: 1. The swelling and dissolution state of sulfite-cooked cellulose fiber (further delignified with NaClO2)in phosphoric acid was improved with decrease in its average D. P. during the sulfite cooking. 2. As a result of subsequent chlorination, hot alkaline purification and hypochlorite bleaching, the state of swelling and dissolution of cellulose was further improved. The final hypochlorite bleaching, however, did not contribute too much to its improvement as the former did. Though the influence of DP of the original sulfite cooked pulps upon the state of swelling and dissolution of cellulose in phosphoric acid was gradually decreased with the subsequent pulping processes, its effect was still slightly observed in final bleached pulps. 3. The determination of the haze value of cellulose solution in 79.5% H3PO4, newly proposed by us, may be a good method for quantitative estimation of reactivity of cellulose. The results by this method was very much consistent with that of microscopic observations, and also with the results reported in Part VII on clogging constant (Kw) of viscose prepared from these samples.
1. Chainlength distributions of four samples of rayon-grade beech pulp were compared with those of four samples of same-grade soft pulp. They were manufactured in laboratory, domestic mills and foreign mills respectively. The conditions of sulfite digestion, refining and bleaching were believed to be different from each other. Chainlength distributions were determined at various occasions by the same person in our laboratory. 2. Even if beech pulp has the degree of polymerization (d. p) equal to soft wood pulp, the spreads of higher d. p fractions were more narrow (See Fig. 1, 2, 3) and the shapes of chainlength distribution curves were not gently-sloping and had a sharp peak at higher d. p. region. (See Fig. 4) 3. These features are considered as resulted from the chainlength distribution of wood fibre in beech pulp. (See our former paper; J. Chem. Soc. Japan, Ind. Chem. Section, 54, 670 (1951))
1. The decrease in the degree of polymerization determined by cupramonium solution viscosity, method, caused by aging of beech pulp alkali cellulose is generally thought to be faster than that of red pine pulp alkali cellulose, owing to the combination of differences in their chainlength distribu tion sand the bias in the determination of cupramonium solution viscosity, based on composition of the solution. (See our former papers.) Namely, the rate of decrease in true degree of polymerization caused by the aging of beech alkali cellulose is substantially identical with that of red pine alkali cellulose. 2. In order to explain this phenomenon quantitatively, models of chainlength distribution of beech and red pine pulp were made and changes of chainlength distribution of alkali cellulose from these pulp were calculated by OKAMURA's theory. The calculated results were compared and showed good agreements with the experimental data.
For quatitative information as to the elastic behaviour of fibre bundles, for example card sliver, top and roving, the present study was undertaken to establish an elastic model for a fibre system built from an elementary unit such as bar-like fibre which may be in itself deformable and mutually slippery. The treatments for a bundle (length L, bulk density ρ, linear density k) of parallel units (elementary fibres of length l, diameter b, density ρ, Young's modulus ε_??_, Poisson's ratio σ_??_ and coefficient of friction f, in the sense of all “effective”) are developed on assumptions that, - (1) When stress S in a stretched bundle is elastic equilibrium to the external force P, the apparent extension of bundle γ would occur in such a fashion that γ becomes linear combination of the elongation of bar-like unit e as the strain of a line element in the elastic medium of constants ε, σ subject to stress S, and the mutual slippage of the centre of each unit, e as the displacement of a point in elastic medium of constants ε, σ subject to the same stress S, (2) Distribution of the position of elementary units is uniform over the full range, and digstribution of their direction θ is symmetrical about the long axis of bundle. Then from assumption (1) we obtaine the following relations: where ε, ε are Young's moduli, σ, σ are Poissonn's ratios in two sets of assumed elastic medie respectively. Here, specific length of bar-like unit to gauge length of bundle λ, fullness of units in the cross-section ω and frictional factor of inter-units α are defined by assumption (2): Then, according to the Hooke's law appropriate for this bundle with two sets of assumed elastic constants, the observed Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ∑ may be expressed as: Now, when we expand E and ∑ in terms of power of extension γ by means of above relations in which ε, α and λ are the functions of γ, we may derive the analytical formulae of stressstrain curve S(γ), lateral contraction curve β(γ), change of sectional area A(γ), and change of bulk density ρ(γ) by the definitions of eqs. (12.12) to (12.15) respectively. We therefore obtain load-elongation curve from expression P(γ)=A(γ)S(γ), and find the breaking strength PM, . breaking elongatiou γM as the maximum values of P(γ) curve. These computed analytical formulae mainly depend upon the particular values of λ and α to which their numerical values of bundle's charactor correspond. Several examples given are by the eqs. (12.19) to (12.38) for the typical region of values of λ and α. Comparisons of the computed and experimental values as to the nature of unit fibre, for various viscose staple slivers with charactors given in Table II, are made in Table I and III. A slight disagreement of theoretical and experimental values of unit fibre properties is introduced by regarding the elementary bar-like unit as coressponding to only one fibre in bundle. Therefore we see that by the interpretation in term of an elementary unit as a group of fibres, the assumptions upon which the computations were based are essentially correct to the elastic model of fibre bundle. Other interesting expressions deduced from this model are those of hysteresis energy loss H(γr) and elastic resilience φ(γr) which appeared with cyclic elongation γr. In the range of small values of γr, H(γr) and φ(γr) are given by eqs, (12.43) to (12.46)
In view of the mechanical approach for the roller drafting, the problem of the unsteady motion of the fibers, which is most important to analyse the drafting wave or the irregularity of the sliver, has been taken up. The main part of this paper is devoted to explain the relation between the irregularity of the sliver before drafting and the one after drafting by taking the simple case. Consequently, the author has shown that the irregularity after drafting depends on the wave length of the irregularity before drafting and the draft ratio. Besides it has been explained that the distribution function, which was used in the steady roller drafting, ρ(x), plays an important role on the analysis of the irregularity, The practical considerations will be presented in detail in the subrequent issue of the periodical.
In this paper, relations between a tuft and raw stock diagram have been studied, and it was found that mean length in a tuft diagram is equal to “Representative Staple Length” in raw stock. Furthermore, staple diagram has been analysed, it was found that evaluation value of the shape of shaple diagram is shown by (La/Lr)×100. Where La: Mean length in raw stock diagram Lr: Representative staple length in raw stock diagram
Our previous Studies Showed a possibility of mechanical evaluation of so-called fabric hand by measuring the withdrawal resistance of the fabric through a ring hole. Conforming to the idea, a practical fabric handling tester was constructed and its characteristics were studied and discussed. It was recognized that the tester can be used as a practical means to rank the fabric hand, and moreover, that it has the following merits in comparison with other methods. 1) Higher reliability of the results. 2) Easier handling of the tester. 3) Easier preparation of the test piece. 4) More sharply evaluated results are expected.
Time/absorption relations in the dyeing of the silk and viscose rayon with the direct cotton dye (Diacotton Blue BB (C I. No.406)) were determined. Also, the diffusion coefficients were obtained under the various dyeing conditions, by application of Crank's solution where the dye is diffused into the fiber for a finite dyebath. We observed the following experimental results: In the acid dyeing of silk, the amount of dye absorbed was very slightly decreased by the nonionic detergent (Peletex LT 300, RO (CH2CH2O)n-1CH2CH2CHO. 5g/l). This effect was large in the neutral dyeing of silk and viscose rayon (bright). The experimental data on the acid dyeing of silk was in good agreement with the value calculated by the Crank's equation. These observations are explained satisfactorily by taking into account the interactions between dye, fiber and detergent.