Silk-based membranes with the thickness of around 6 micrometers were prepared from the silk glands of fully grown larvae of domestic Bombyx mori silkworm instead of its fibers, and the fundamental vapor permeation as well as pervaporation experiments of ethanol-water mixtures were performed. The permselectivity of water for the membranes developed was almost comparable to that for chitosan and a little superior to PVA. The observed ATR-FTIR spectra bands in the range of amide I and II frequencies for the silk-based membranes were unchanged after the treatments with ethanol. The membranes produced from liquid silk seem to be fairly stable against ethanol.
In this study, the ethanol injection method was utilized to encapsulate thioglycolic acid (TGA) in liposomes, and 4 lipid formulations were designed to assess the effects of liposome-encapsulated TGA on hair perming. The results showed that the diameter of liposomes without cholesterols was between 112.5 nm and 124 nm, and the diameter expanded to 288 nm to 325 nm after supplementing the liposome particles with cholesterols. The S-shaped waving of hair treated with a pH 9.0 liposome hair perm solution after 4 hair washes was around 19.06 % to 24.73 %, which was higher than the 17.27 % of the control group. Analyses of the cysteine content in hair treated with the first perm solution revealed that the cysteine content in the control group was about 4.40 %, whereas that of the experimental group was 4.51 % to 5.31 %. These results demonstrated that liposomes facilitate the penetration of perm solutions into the hair cortex to cleave the disulfide bonds, thus enhancing the reduction capacity of the first perm solution.
A new vat dyeing process for cotton knits with a modified jet dyeing machine has been developed. Proper conditions with regard to the amount of the reducing agent, oxidizing process, and dyeing temperature were searched for with this machine. The dyeing proceeded stably and reproducibly at 60°C by using the modified machine and process. The conventional vat dyeing method of cotton knits with a jet dyeing machine has been performed under nitrogen gas. In the present study, a jet dyeing machine was modified for dyeing the knit roll in the following points. The air tightness of the machine was made sure at the joint parts and window. The machine was equipped with the inlet and outlet to the liquor circulating system for the additions of liquors containing adequate agents. A sensor for in situ measurements of oxidation and reduction potential and pH was inserted into the liquid circulation system. These measurements made it sure that the dyeing, gentle oxidation by washing water, and final oxidation reach to respective quasi-equilibrium states after certain periods. Using this modified machine, vat dyeing at 60°C was examined to confirm the feasibility of fast and uniform dyeing. Increased amount of hydrosulfite in excess to the required amount for the reduction of the dye was used to consume out oxygen in the air space of the machine. The dyed knit was overflow washed with water, four times of the dyeing liquor and then treated with oxidizing agent to complete the oxidation of the dyed knit. It was found by visual inspection that faultless dyeing of the knit with vat dyes, especially in deep colour, was attained at the temperature leading to spare the dyeing period.