Two kinds of new squarylium dyes have been prepared. Aminosquarylium dyes (ASQ) (6) have been prepared by condensation of aminosquarates (3) and 1-ethyl-2, 3, 3-trimethylindolenium iodide (5). New aminosquarylium dye 6a absorbed at a longer wavelength (18nm) than the corresponding squarylium dye (SQ) 7c. A new class of dithiosquarylium dyes (DTSQ 8) has also been synthesized by the reaction of squarylium dye (SQ) with Lawesson's reagent or P4S10. The λmax of DTSQ dyes undergoes a bathochromic shift of about 25nm compared with corresponding SQ dyes. The visible absorption spectra of ASQ and DTSQ dyes are well accounted for by PPP-MO calculations.
Molecularly imprinted polymeric membranes, bearing a tetrapeptide derivative H-Asp (OcHex)-Val-Asn-Glu (OBzl)-CH2-, were prepared by the membrane preparation (casting) process in the presence of print molecule Ac-L-Trp. The molecularly imprinted polymeric membranes thus obtained showed adsorption selectivity toward the print molecule. The tetrapeptide derivative in the imprinted membranes preferentially recognized Ac-L-Trp from racemic Ac-Trp solutions. The affinity constant between Ac-L-Trp and the chiral recognition site was determined to be 9.7×103 mol-1 dm3 from the adsorption isotherm of Ac-L-Trp in the molecularly imprinted polymeric membrane. Enantioselective electrodialysis was achieved with the present membrane, and the L-isomer was permeated in preference to D-isomer.
In order to develop new biomedical materials, the preparation and characterization of crosslinked porous silk fibroin gel (CPFG) were investigated by using ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) as a crosslinking agent. The CPFG was prepared by freezing (-50°C_??_-5°C) and thawing a homogeneous fibroin solution containing EGDE. The average pore size of CPFG was varied from 100-300μm by adjusting the concentrations of silk fibroin, EGDE and the freezing temperature. The tenacity and elongation ratio of CPFG were improved by increasing the concentration of silk fibroin and EGDE within a certain range. From these results, it was found that CPFG with excellent properties can be prepared at low temperatures by using EGDE as a crosslinking agent.
It is well known that the Cupro®, Polynosic and organic solvent span rayons, such as Tencel®, and Lyoce® fibers are easy to fibrillate. The Rayon fiber is difficult to fibrillate. We developed fibrillation-resistant Cupro(CUPRO2) by means of a new spinning method. In this study, we attempted to compare the solid structures of CUPRO2, Cupro (CUPROl), Rayon(RAYON) and Lyocel (LYOCEL) in order to discover the factors governing the fibrillation. To this end, WAXD, Dynamic viscoelastic analysis, and CP/MASS13 CNMR analysis were carried out. The measured fibrillation resistance grade was as follows: RAYON (95)>CUPRO2 (75)>CUPRO1 (40)>LYOCEL (10). Crystallinity index, degree of crystallite orientation, and apparent crystallite size estimated for the (1_??_0) plane decreased with increasing fibrillation resistance grade. The peak temperatures of α1 and α2 dispersion (Tmaxα1, Tmaxα2) measured from the mechanical loss tangent-temperature curve increased in order of the fibrillation resistance grade, that is to say, the inter-and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding seemed to increase with increasing fibrillation resistance grade. It may be concluded.that the fibrillation characteristic is greatly influenced by the degree and strength of inter-and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding in the amorphous region at the surface of the microfibril.
The relationships between the subjective measurement, such as “Elasticity”, “Smoothness” and “Adhesibility of the foundation on a sponge”, and the compression and surface properties of sponges were investigated. On the basis of experimental and theoretical considerations, the three characteristic values were presented to predict the sensorial evaluation of sponges. (1) Characteristic values of elasticity for the prediction of “Elasticity”: Ee (=E/RC, where E is the elastic modulus and RC is resilience) (2) Characteristic values of surface smoothness for the prediction of “Smoothness”: Sm (=Dn•Ee where Dn is the degree of surface finess obtained from the surface roughness (SMD) and its wave analysis) (3) Characteristic values of adhesibility for the evaluation of “Adhesibility of the foundation on a sponge”: Ad(=SMD•Ee)
Remarkable mechanical properties of woven fabrics are material non-linearity and anisotropy that affect dynamic behavior of the fabrics. This paper discusses modal analysis of anisotropic elastic bodies for a purpose of qualitative evaluation of dynamic deformation of the fabrics. Proper oscillation of an elastic body that shows the characteristics of the dynamic deformation is determined by the mechanical properties, the shape and the boundary condition. We calculate the proper oscillation of thin plates and cylinders made by anisotropic elastic bodies by using FEM, and discuss the relation between modulus of transverse elasticity and the proper oscillation. For the thin plate elastic body, the frequencies of proper oscillation increase linearly, however, the frequencies of the cylindrical elastic body increase discontinuously. The reason why the frequencies change discontinuously is that two proper oscillations of the cylindrical elastic body in the same frequency vibrate in different directions. When modulus of transverse elasticity is decreased, fundamental proper oscillation consist of complex bending patterns. It can be considered that these fundamental proper oscillations relates the dynamic deformation of the fabrics.
The seam pucker simulation was extended to be able to treat collisions. In case of seam pucker simulation, an element of one virtual fabric might not collide with the remote portion of another virtual fabric. The local search of collisions is enough for the purpose of seam pucker simulation. For the detection of collisions, “selection” which is one of the functions of a graphic library was utilized. Collisions were settled that the colliding elements were made to contact with each other. Two ways of collision management were proposed. One was the iterated use of “selection” and the other was the geometrical calculation. To utilize for the calculation of deformation, the force from one fabric to another through the contact point was calculated. A test simulation of seam pucker was executed. Another test simulation of an elastic cube wrapped with a fabric was also executed and the proposed collision management was verified.
The treatment with a mixture of water-soluble silk fibroin, glyoxal and urethane resins enhanced the crease recoverability without lowering tear resistance of cotton fabrics. Dynamic thermogravimetry measurements revealed that amount of solution and adsorption water in the sorption isotherm of cotton-water systems was decreased by the treatment.