Convective heat transfer coefficients of the vertical hot plate with the clothing material placed parallel to it, when there was no forced flow in surroundings, were measured. The effect of air penetration both through the permeable clothing material and through the bottom of air space was studied. The effect of radiation property of the clothing material was also examined. The effect of penetration on heat transfer through the material was smaller than those through the bottom of the space when there was no forced flow in surroundings. Radiation effect of the material on heat transfer was about 30±5% for every height and size of air space when the bottom was closed, while when the bottom was open, radiation effect was much less than those of closed condition when space was 5 or 10mm. It was probably because of convection in air space of clothing.
The velocity distribution in the inner flow field around a solid cylinder that was covered with a cloth and immersed in an air flow was studied experimentally by hot-wire anemometry. The cicumferential distribution of the velocity was detected by a hot-wire probe which was inserted into the clearance between the inner surface of the covering cloth and the surface of the cylinder. The results suggested that, with being away from the frontal stagnation point, the inner flow was accelerated to a maximum point positioned at about 45 degrees distant along the cylinder circumference from the starting point, and then decelerated to zero velocity at a 90-degree point. It was confirmed that the inner air flow blew off from the inner field in the region between these two positions and that the maximum velocity increased linearly with the permeability of the covering cloth. The effects of doubling the covering and of changing the thickness of the inner flow region were also investigated. It was shown, as the result, that the flow permeation into the inner region could be strongly suppressed by covering doubly, and that increasing the clearance raised the inner flow velocity.
A new type of simulator for clothing microclimate was constructed. It was designed to simulate the humidity fluctuation in clothing microclimate as observed under the light working conditions and to measure the surface temperature of a fabric specimen faced to skin by means of a radiation thermometer. Knitted fabrics of cotton and polyester, and a polyethylene film were used as specimens with different hygroscopicities. The quick rises and drops in the surface temperature of cotton fabrics were observed under the rapid fluctuation of the microclimate humidity. Under the same humidity fluctuation, the temperature of polyester fabrics rose and dropped more moderately than that of cotton fabrics, and the temperature of the polyethylene film did not change. Generally, the higher is the rate of change in stimulus temperature, the closer approaches the threshold temperature of warm sensation on the skin to a given adapting temperature. Therefore, the quick and large changes in the fabric temperature faced to skin, which were observed especially for hygroscopic cotton fabrics, must affect the thermal comfort of clothing.
Waistband pressures were measured by a hydrostatic pressure-balanced method to determine the feeling of wear comfort quantitatively. The pressure developed under the standing erect and natural respiration conditions and wearing a waistband with a reduction rate of 5.0% was only 17.5±2.1mmHg on the average. Under various body conditions (position, movement and respiration), the waistband pressure sometimes became greater than 35mmHg, where the subjects for brassiere and girdle also complained of uncomfortableness. The subjects for waistband seemed to recognize the wear comfort of waistband just after wearing it, by predicting the possible pressure increase under the coming body conditions. Correlation coefficients among some parameters (ratio of perfect fit length to nude size length, thickness of subcutaneous fat, amount of subcutaneous fat, waistband pressure and radius of curvature on 5 body regions) were calculated at waist line to evaluate the most favorable conditions of perfect-fit waistband. The feeling of the wear comfort in the waistband was closely related to the clothing pressures measured by the hydrostatic pressure-balanced method.
The effect of beauty and comfort on the quality of clothing are discussed. Wear trial and sight trial were performed for twenty four samples of gathered skirts, The subjective evaluation by SD methods was analyzed by using factor analysis and was related to the mechanical characteristics of the material. The total quality of gathered skirts was explained by one factor of visual beauty concerning subjective sight evaluation, and by two factors of tactile and visual beauty concerning subjective wear evaluation. Visual beauty and the total quality of gathered skirts are closely related to the mechanical properties of bending, shear and fabric weight, and is to be described by the parameters of formability, elastic potential and drape components concerning garment appearance.
The degree of seam puckering, which is an important index of sewability of fabrics, has been usually evaluated only by visual judgement, but a more reliable, quantitative and objective method is necessary for making the standard and for automatic measurement. To this end, an evaluation method is proposed, which is based on the intensity of the ultrasonic wave reflected by fabrics. This method is higher in sensitivity than the laser beam method previously proposed by the present authors, and the resulted evaluation coincided with the usual visual one for more than 70% of many test cases.
The effect of silicone treatments on the fabric handle of woolen muslin after repeated dry cleaning was investigated by measuring mechanical properties with the KES-FB fabric testing system and by the sensory evaluations with the Scheffé's paired t-test. The factor analysis of mechanical properties and sensory evalutions showed that the effect of silicone treatments consisted of three factors, namely, spring, thickness including softness, and smoothness. Spring could be improved by the treatment with amino-functional silicone, and softness and smoothness could be improved by polydimethylsiloxane and epoxyfunctional silicone.
The visual effect of clothes was evaluated with the rating of becoming, and the influence on the rating was analyzed based on the word expression. The previous method, the double Suryoka theory (Method of Quantification) which used the factor analysis, could decrease a quantity of information from the obtained data. Therefore, some new methods were proposed which do not use the factor analysis, only using addition, reduction and counting of the original data. This method can estimate the rating of becoming. No significant difference was recognized between the double Suryoka theory (Quantification) and the present new methods concerning the estimated accuracy.