繊維学会誌
Online ISSN : 1884-2259
Print ISSN : 0037-9875
38 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の14件中1~14を表示しています
  • 松本 喜代一, 村田 恵子, 松下 道子, 内海 暢生, 萩原 滋子
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. T103-T108
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The structural change of amorphous region of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films stretched uniaxially or biaxially was investigated by means of dye-diffusion behavior. The detailed stretching methods and characteristics of samples, such as crystallinity, molecular orientation and trans-gauche contents were the same as reported previously. The diffusion coefficients of disperse dye, C. I. Disperse Blue 26, were measured in the temperature range from 80°C to boiling temperature (about 100°C).
    The results are summarized as follows,
    (1) The morphology of amorphous region of PET inferred from the diffusivity of dye varied with stretching methods, namely orientation mode of the films.
    (2) Dense network of amorphous chain showed large molecular flexibility was obtained by uniaxial stretching.
    (3) On the other hand, expanded network of amorphous chain was obtained by biaxially stretching.
    (4) The dye diffusion behavior of polymer film was found to be suitable for the investigation of the structure of amorphous region of polymer stretched by various methods.
  • 中島 勝, 熨斗 秀夫, 今仲 明夫, 山崎 隆, 矢田 尚登
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. T109-T115
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The apparatus of mechanochemical turbine in the mechanical shape and materials similar to those designed by A. Katchalsky was constructed. The experiment on the driving of mechanochemical turbine was performed to make clear some obscure points in Katchalsky's paper such as proper condition of crosslinking treatment of collagen film, theoretically induced revolution number and situation of turning.
    The following results were obtained; 1) crosslinking of collagen film with 2% formaldehyde aqueous solution and 10M LiBr aqueous solution as a contracting liquid were found to be suitable, 2) the equation of the calculated revolution number using the mechanochemical diagram was induced, 3) this turbine could not be turned continuously for a long period of time, but continuous several turnings were gained temporarily, and it was found that the observed revolution number was 2.5 sec-1 and the power was 26.5mW closed to the figure of 30mW obtained by Katchalsky. The results indicate that the induced equation of revolution number is valid and the power of 26.5mW would be acceptable.
  • 黒田 亘哉, 黒木 宣彦
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. T116-T122
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The diffusion coefficient of phenol in polyester films was estimated at various concentrations and temperatures in order to elucidate a role of carriers in dyeing process of polymer. The diffusion coefficient of phenol in the amorphous region of polymer increased with increasing both concentration and temperature. This suggests that the sorbed phenol accelerates the segmental motion of the polymer chain.
    At the same time, dynamic moduli of two kinds of films were measured in phenol solutions at various temperatures and the dynamic moduli in the amorphous region EA' was calculated assuming the phenol was sorbed only in the amorphous region of polymer. Linear relationship was generally obtained between the EA' and the diffusion coefficients in amorphous region DA(c)in high concentration region of phenol. However, EA' deviated slightly from linear relation in low concentration region, which was attributed to the internal fine structure of each sample.
  • 木下 陸肥路
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. P117-P122
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鈴木 文男, 小野里 健二, 高橋 直通
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. T123-T130
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    In heterogeneous system, the alkali saponification reaction of cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane in the mixture of ethanol and water advanced with sharp moving boundary of reacted layer with a linear relationship of the thickness with the reaction time as in the case of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer membrane. Sorption and diffusion of H2O and C2 H5 OH under the pervaporation with the reaction were examined, and results were obtained as follows. Experimental values of permeation rates of H2O and C2H5OH through a partially saponified membrane agreed with those calculated by assuming the membrane to be a lamination of two layers of cellulose and CTA. For the pervaporation with the reaction, an equation was obtained. Where F is over all permeation rates for water or ethanol, k is the moving rate of the boundary front, l is the membrane thickness before the reaction and Pcell and PCTA are permeability constants for cellulose and CTA membrane, respectively. Plots of 1/F vs. t showed linear relationships for ethanol and water, respectively. From the results, the permeation constants for H2O and C2H5OH under the heterogeneous reaction were obtained. Diffusivity of alkali ion in the cellulose membrane was found 120 times larger than that in CTA membrane. Summarizing these results, it was concluded that the alkali saponification reaction under pervaporation advanced with a controlling step of boundary reaction. An analogy may be found between the reaction and the Case II type diffusion.
  • 酒井 豊子
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. P123-P127
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 長谷川 準三
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. P128-P132
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 清水 慶昭, 浜中 裕, 山田 恭子, 木村 光雄
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. T131-T135
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    蛋白繊維に対する酸性染料の染着機構を解明するため,染色モデル系としての牛血清アルブミン(BSA)に対する塩酸,水酸化ナトリウムおよび酸性染料Orange II (ORII)の反応熱を40°Cにおいて測定した。得られた値を試剤濃度0に外挿したときの反応熱[-ΔHc→o]が有用であるので,この値を用いた。得られた[-ΔHc→o] (kcal/mol)は塩酸に対して-2.1,水酸化ナトリウムに対して8.6, ORIIに対してpH3で11.7, pH11で4.8であった。これらの値から推定すると, BSAと塩酸との反応ではBSA中のカルボキシルアニオンへのプロトンの付加熱が,水酸化ナトリウムとの反応では水の生成を伴なう中和熱が[-ΔHc→o]に大きく寄与している。また, ORIIとの反応ではプロトン化したアミノ基とORIIアニオンのイオン結合のほかにORII分子中の水酸基,アゾ基または芳香環とBSA分子中のアミノ基,カルボキシル基または水酸基との水素結合も生じていると考えられる。
  • 相坂 登
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. P133-P136
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 木村 光雄, 吉井 昇, 中島 康雄, 森田 実幸, 清水 慶昭
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. T136-T141
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    代表的セルロース系吸着剤(TChP及びCaN)に対する酸(HCl, CH3SO3H, C2H5SO3H, C6H5SO3H, C10H7SO3H他)及び酸性染料(CI Acid Orange 7, CI Acid Red 88, CI Food Yellow 3他)の吸着等温線,飽和吸着量及び吸着熱を35°Cで測定した。
    これらの吸着剤は染色排水の処理のために開発されたものであって, transitional pore~macro poreの広範囲のサイズの細孔中にかなりの量の塩基性座席を持っている。酸の吸着に際して,まず塩基性座席がプロトン化され,次いでこれらのプロトン化した座席にアニオンが吸着する。酸及び酸性染料の吸着等温線はラングミュア型と考えることが出来るが,得られた飽和吸着量はアニオンのイオンサイズによって変化する,何故ならばイオン吸着と共に物理吸着も起ることと塩基性座席のアクセシビリティが細孔の大きさによって影響されるからである。
    得られた-Δμ°はTCbPに対して10.5~13.6kcal/molであり, -ΔH°はTChPに対して6.5 (HCl)及び8.5~13.1kcal/mol (その他の酸と酸性染料)であった。
    親和力及び吸着熱に対するCl〓の寄与が無いと仮定すると,プロトン及びアニオン類の吸着の熱力学的パラメーターを算出することが出来る。得られたイオン類の-ΔS°の値と水和との関係から,酸性染料によるタン白繊維またはポリアミド繊維の染色の場合と同様に水の構造変化の寄与が吸着に重要な役割を演じていると結論できる。
  • 近田 淳雄
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. P137-P145
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 米竹 孝一郎, 神 妙子, 増子 徹, 唐沢 幹雄
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. T142-T145
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The annealed polypropylene (PP) films of crystallinity Cx (0.55_??_0.59) have been dyed with three water-soluble disperse dyes at a selected dyeing temperature ranging from 75°C to 90°C. The thermodynamic parameters of dyeing were determined from the adsorption isotherms by assuming the effective internal volume of PP to be (1-Cx )/ρa, where ρa is the amorphous density of PP. The values of standard enthalpy change (-ΔH°) and entropy change (-ΔS°) of dyeing thus determined were found to be positive, and decreased as the hydrophobic nature of the dye increased. On the other hand, the standard affinity increased with increasing the hydrophobicity of dye. This finding supports the idea that the entropic interaction forces between polypropylene and disperse dyes play an important role in the dyeing process of PP.
  • 森田 健一, 鴻巣 信
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. P146-P155
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 松崎 啓, 宇田 和夫
    1982 年 38 巻 3 号 p. P156-P165
    発行日: 1982/03/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
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