Physical properties of uncrosslinked and crosslinked by ethyleneglycoldiglycidyl (EGDE) or polyethyleneglycoldiglycidyl (PGDE) sericin-chitosan blend membranes were investigated. 1. The surface of chitosan membrane was very smooth even after the treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide. Those of uncrosslinked and crosslinked blend membranes were relatively flat before washing, but they were extremely uneven after washing with an alkaline solution. 2. With increasing sericin mixing ratio tensile stress increased whereas tensile strain decreased for uncrosslinked blend membrane. For crosslinked blend membrane by EGDE, both of tensile stress and tensile strain decreased. Tensile stress increased but tensile strain decreased for crosslinked blend membrane by PGDE (n=4). Both values for crosslinked blend membrane by PGDE (n=9) were equal or over to those of chitosan membrane. 3. The diffusion coefficient and permeability coefficient for an anionic dye (CI Acid Orange 7) into the blend membrane greatly increased. Those for the blend membrane crosslinked by PGDE of n=4 decreased whereas those values for the crosslinked blend membrane by PGDE of n=9 increased, because of the increase in the porosity by cleaning with an aqueous sodium hydroxide.
A sensor fusion system has been developed in order to characterize nano fiber webs under mass production.
The fusion system consists of high magnification microscope and CCD(Charged coupled device) camera combination
system for web images acquisition and the two laser displacement sensors for thickness measurement. Since the images obtained from an optical microscope represent only web surface, a scale factor (the ratio of depth of focus and thickness)
has been introduced to characterize the web structure as a whole. The web structures by the microscope have been
compared to those by liquid flow porometer, especially in pore size distribution. It has been shown that those two
structures have a strong correlation, indicating that scaling of a single layer web structure can be an effective estimation for the structure of the thick fiber webs.
The effect of a modification of cell membrane complex (CMC) on the color developed by oxidation dye
reaction of three precursors with a coupler was investigated. From the results of dyeing in the presence of ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), it was found that the dye uptake of the wool samples modified with 98-99% formic acid decreased apparently compared to that of unmodified wool sample. The decreased extent of their uptake was dependent on the extent of modification of CMC. However, if unmodified and CMC-modified wool samples were dyed with the preformed dyeing system, the dye uptake of all the modified samples ware approximately
same as that of unmodified sample. Also, it was found that the mechanically pulverized cortex cells seem to be inactive
to dyeing with both oxidative dyeing system and preformed dyeing system. Consequently, it is assumed that not only
the CMC regions play an important role as accumulation regions of the finished dye, but also any components of the intercellular material take strongly part in color formation on the wool fibers as catalyst.
This study aims to clarify the influence of cup-stand materials on clothing pressure, compressive feeling,
silhouette evaluation and physiological responses (heart rate and blood pressure). We conducted wearing tests of pushup type brassieres of which cup-stand materials have different tensile resistances. This includes a regular type brassiere with a short cup-stand as control sample. Clothing pressure and compressive feeling that measured and evaluated in a sitting position depended on the tensile properties of the total bottom section of brassieres. Brassieres where
compressive feeling was lower were more comfortable. Variable coefficients in clothing pressure during a stepping exercise depended on the tensile properties of the cup-stand section. When wearing brassieres with lower tensile resistance at the cup-stand section subjects had lower physiological responses (the heart rate and double product : heart rate×systolic pressure) during and after exercise. A decrease in body size when wearing the push-up brassieres was larger than that of the regular sample, therefore we concluded that the push-up effect depended on the length of the cup-stand. The brassieres with higher tensile resistance and a longer cup-stand could obtain a better silhouette evaluation, but the evaluations of all push-up type brassieres were better than that of the regular one. Within the push-up type brassieres used, a brassiere without bust-under tape (hem type) at the cup-stand section had the lowest clothing pressure and the subjects had the lowest physiological responses. It was also most comfortable.
The chemical crosslinking of funoran, a sulfated galactan, was attempted by using polyethylene glycol
diglycidyl ethers in order to prepare a gel for using as a water-absorbing network polymer contained in disposable napkins. The funoran gel was not obtained under a series of crosslinking conditions. Other sulfated polysaccharides, such as Kappa-and Lambda-carrageenan, were not also crosslinked by the diglycidyl ethers, while agarose was chemically crosslinked to give its gel. Agarose has the same chemical main chain as funoran but has no sulfuric acid groups. The bulky sulfuric acid groups may intercept sterically the reaction between the hydroxyl groups and the glycidyl groups of the crosslinker.