amboo-based activated carbon fibers were fabricated into paper- and cylinder-shaped composites using a
simple wet molding technique combined with a dual polymer retention (DPR) system. The as-prepared activated carbon
cylinders possessed high practical utility and were assessed for water purification purposes. They achieved the effective
removal of colloidal organic contaminants in model tap water. In addition, calcium sulfite powder and carboxymethyl
cellulose fiber were successfully embedded into the activated carbon cylinder. The resulting composite accomplished
the efficient removal of residual hypochlorite compounds and lead ions. The simple wet-molding method combined
with the DPR system is well suited to mass production, and the activated carbon cylinder is a promising material for
future water purification systems.
Cellulose nanofibers were isolated from parenchyma cells of pears and apples by one-time fibrillation using
a grinding apparatus after the removal of matrix substances. The fibrillated cellulose samples were observed by field
emission scanning electron microscopy, and were found to have a fine nano-structure. That is, the structure was
uniform with an average width of approximately 18 nm and a high aspect ratio. These appearances were similar to those
for nanofibers from wood. The fabricated nanofibers were characterized by FT-IR spectra and X-ray diffraction profiles,
which showed that cellulose nanofibers were extracted, and the cellulose I crystal structure was maintained after a series
of chemical treatments and grinding processing.
In this study, chitin nanofibers were at first successfully prepared using aqueous counter collision (= ACC)
method. Dispersion states of the chitin nanofibers in water were compared with aqueous dispersion of cellulose
nanofibers in dynamic viscoelastic properties. Morphology of the chitin nanofibers was observed by transmission
electron microscopy and polarizing light microscopy. As a result, the ACC treatment provided aqueous dispersion of
chitin nanofibers having width of 10-20 nm, and repetition of the treatment allowed a homogeneous aqueous dispersion
of the similar sized nanofibers, instead of further pulverization, from the intermediately treated mixture containing
different scaled chitin fibers co-existed. The homogeneous dispersion containing chitin nanofibers exhibited much
higher dynamic storage and loss moduli when compared with an aqueous cellulose nanofiber system. The dynamic
storage modulus of the chitin dispersion tended to increase with increase in the amount of such homogeneous
nanofibers, differing from the case of nano-size effects found in the cellulose system that was oppositely decreased.
This indicated that the chitin nanofibers dispersed in water were likely to engage a more favorable network.
It is well known that the faults such as thin-thick, neps and unevenness in the staple yarn make bad the
quality of the fabric that is knitted from the yarn. There is a double ply yarn that have neither thin-thick nor neps and no
specific cycle in yarn evenness that cause problem in the plain stitch fabric made from flat knitting machine. For
comparison, the yarn which has almost same properties on evenness test as the former yarn and makes no problem fabric
is selected. In the case of former yarn, the range of the tension which passes through needles on friction test is wider
than that of latter yarn and the tension has a certain cyclic variation. The yarn which has certain cyclic tension variation
at passing through the needles is made experimentally and is knitted. These results were shown.