This paper describes the theoretical consideration of wind penetration and heat transmission through the fabric layer fitting closely to the heated cylinder which is the simple model of clothing system. The wind penetration was assumed to follow Darcy's law and the streamlines of penetration flow in the fabrics near the stagnation point on the cylinder were found to be given by the hyperbolae including the unknown parameter ΔP* in relation to the differential pressure across the fabric layer. Under the existance of penetration flow, the heat transfer equation has the solution of temperature distribution approximated with the form of error function. This temperature distribution makes clear the resistance of fabric layer IF as the function of, ΔP* and where U: wind velocity, ρ: air density, Cp. air heat capacity, μ: air viscosity, ky: permeability of fabrics, λmy: thermal conductivity of fabrics, δ: thickness of fabrics. Over-all resistance I at stagnation point of cylinder is the sum of IF and the resistance of external air film IA weighted by the conductive flux ratio, where IA is estimated by the heat transfer process of normal cylinder (without fabrics). Theoretically calculated results of I are most fitting the data in the case of the range of ΔP* from 0.2 to 0.5, in other words the value of differential pressure acting across the fabric layer on the stagnation should be about a half or a quarter of the dynamic pressure of wind. Then the magnitude of ΔP* seems to be reasonable and we conclude that Darcy's law and heat transfer equation are effective on the study of wind penetration and so the fabric layer is formulated by the three values of layer; Darcy's permeability ky thermal conductivity λmy and thickness δ.
Drying properties of regular and modified acrylic fabrics were studied. A modified acrylic fabric has many micropores in the fiber. The infrared analysis indicates that the regular fabrics have almost the same chemical moieties as the modified, whereas their sorptive behaviours are different each other. The measurements for drying processes were carried out in a box at 20°C and 63% R. H. All of drying characteristic curves showed convex upward. In the preceding report, the following characteristic equation (1) was proposed for drying process. The decreasing coefficient, k, was determined by the slope of the following equation (2). k became larger in order of wool, cotton, modified acrylic fabric, nylon, regular acrylic fabric. The k value for the modified acrylic fabrics were nearly same as that for cotton. Plots for the free moisture content versus the reciprocal of the decreasing coefficient also gave a straight line.
The preparation of water-proof ion exchange paper is carried out as follows: (1) Wet paper is made of the fine fibrous ion exchanger having heat-adhesive property with TAPPI standard paper making machine. As reported in a previous paper, the skeletone of the ion exchanger is composed of high density polyethylene. (2) After the wet paper is dried, it is treated with heat of 150°C for ten seconds to give water-proof properties. The characteristics of the ion exchange paper are clarified as follows: (a) As heat-treatment brings about adhesion between contacting points of fibrous ion exchanger, the ion exchange paper does not disperse in water even with stirring, so it can be used repeatedly. (b) A well balanced ion exchange paper similar to filter paper is gained by adding wood pulp 30wt%. (c) Ion exchange capacities of the ion exchange paper prepared under the optimum condition are as follows:
The photofading rate of Acridine Orange N in a dioxane-ethanol mixture has been studied in the presence of polymers having certain ultraviolet absorption groups, 2-hydroxybenzophenone (HBP), 2, 4-dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBP) and phenyl benzoate (PB). Polymer K was obtained from styrene-4-benzoxystyrene copolymer (polymer E) by Photo-Fries rearrangement. Polymer SB was obtained by copolymerization of styrene and 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacryloxy-2-hydroxypropoxy) benzophenone (BPMA). Since the conversion of photo-Fries rearrangement of polymer E was low, polymer K contained a small fraction of HBP unit and a large fraction of PB unit as ultraviolet absorption groups, while polymer SB contained only HBP unit. The results of photofading of Acridine Orange N in the solutions containing these polymers are summarised as follows. Polymer K, polymer SB, HBP and DHBP played roles of retarder on the photofading rate of the dye with the extents of the effects in the order: polymer SB>DHBP>HBP>polymer K, while polymer E and PB acted as accelerator.