When rabbit fibre is carroted by the mixture of Hg (NO3)2, HNO3 and NaNO2, the following correlations may be considered between the amino acid residues and the amounts of weight increase; 1) The increase of cystine is largest 2) Those of tyrosine, tryptophane, lysine, hydroxylysine and arginine are only larger. 3) Those of phenylalanine, histidine serine and threonine are more or less shown. 4) Those of glycine, aranine, proline, valine, leucine, metionine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid are not shown. The above expectations were tested with the various fibres whose chemical composition was well known i.e. nylon, bombyx mori, antheraea yamamai, wool and Angora rabbit fibre.
Problems of polymerization and condensation reactions of N-methylolacrylamide within cotton fabrics using polymerization catalysts such as KPS, APS and H2O2 and acid condensation catalysts such as NH4Cl, and (NH4)2HPO4 were investigated mainly from the standpoint of crease recoveries of treated fabrics. Following results were obtained; (1) Predrying process may be neglected as almost the same result could be obtained even in case of direct curing processes, in which case care should be taken not to lead to over curing. (2) Crease recoveries and abrasion resistances (flat) of treated fabrics increase with resin contents; tear strengths, on the contrary, decrease presumably by some intrinsic cause. (3) Except for lower concentrations of APS, resin contents in fabrics and crease recoveries increase in parallel to the amount of the catalyst, having double effects of both initiating polymerization and inducing acidic methylol condensation reactions. (4) The effect of the addition of acidic catalysts such as NH4Cl for crease recoveries is large, although some remarkable improvements are obtainable in neutral catalyst such as KPS only. (5) Durabilities of treated fabries for boiling alkali washes are high.
The sulfidation-resistance value (S-W), proposed by R. Bartunek as an estimating method of reactivity of dissolving pulp, is the amounts of undissolved residue of pulp after emulsion xanthation at the definite concentration of sodium hydroxide solution, sufficient to mercerize cellulose, with 25% of carbon disulfide based on the pulp. The Bartunek's S-W shows only a point on the emulsion xanthation soluhility curve (S-W curve) as a function of the amount of carbon disulfide added. The significance of S-W curve and the relation between S-W curve and Bartunek's S-W must be investigated to make clear the significance of Bartunek's S-W as a estimating method of reactivity in dissolving pulp. In this paper, the relation between sulfidation and dissolution in S-W curve is examined, and an adequate expression method of characteristics of S-W curve is proposed. The results are as follows: 1) S-W curve can be converted to the straight line on the following assumptions. a) Sulfidation and dissolution occur from the outer surface of fiber and advance to its center, namely fiber is peeled off gradually from the surface. b) If the amount of dissolved cellulose is expressed by the distance from the surface in radial direction (dissolved distance), the distance is proportional to the amount of carbon disulfide added in emulsion xanthation. 2) The converted S-W curve (shown as calculated curve in Figs. 2, 3, 5 and 6) is consisted of three lines, and its inflexion-points correspond to the points at which distinctly γ-value of undissolved residue varies. This means that the reaction of pulp in emulsion xanthation is consisted of three steps of sulfidation and dissolution processes. In the last step, most of pulps show sulfidation-resistance. 3) If sulfidation and dissolution of pulp advance on the assumption described above, the contents of S-W curve are as follows: When a ratio of the degree of sulfidation and dissolution is more uniform over the whole range of solubility on emulsion xanthation, the carbon disulfide is less consumed for the complete dissolution of pulp. How far to the fiber the sulfidation advance during emulsion xanthation, in comparison with the degree of dissolution (dissolved distance), determines the amount of carbon disulfide required for 100% dissolution of pulp, (1/A3) shown in Fig. 6. The ununiformity of converted S-W curve, (A2/A3-1) shown in Fig. 6, express the ununiformity of ratio of sulfidation and dissolution during emulsion xanthation process. 4) From the above, S-W curve can be characterized by A3 and (A2/A3-1).
The conductivity of the following three dye acid solutions was measured at 25, 50 and 90°C respectively to search the state of these dyes in aqueous solutions. Monosulphonic acid: Naphthionic acid→β-Naphthol (I), Disulphonic acid: α-Naphthylamine→Gacid (II), Trlsulphonic acid: Naphthionic acid→G acid (III). The equivalent conductivity obtained was plotted against the square root of coacentration (N) as in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. At 25°C, on all of these dyes I, II and III, the presence of ionic micelle of dye is considered from the curve of _??_C-Λ having the maximum. This so-called McBain effect is tend to disappear with the rise of temperature. At 90°C, the relation between _??_C and Λ is represented by strainght line, then I, II and III dyes are considered to be in true solution containing no ionic micelle of these dyes. In these dyes having the same skeletal structure, the lesser the number of sulphonic acid group, the greater the tendency to form the ionic micelle in aqueous solutions.
The absorption isotherms of Zambesi Black D (C. I. No.27700) (I) and aniline→p-cresidine→γ-acid (II) were determined under the same condition described in part IV. (I) and (II) showed nearly equal the mean standard affinity. (4.4 kcal). (I) contains a longer conjugated chain of double bonds than (II). These results are explained by taking into account the hydration of dye.
The aqueous solutions of some dyes, such as Benzo Azurine G (BAG), Cu-complex dye derived from BAG (Cu-complex) and Congo Red (CR), were exposed to the light of mercury quartz lamp or to a carbon arc lamp. In order to make use of the ultra-violet rays and the visible rays of mercury quartz lamp, two filters, UV-DIC and V-Y3C, were respectively used. The absorption spectra of the dyes were measured at convenient time with a spectrophotometer, and the exposure of the dye solutions to the rays were continued again. The results of this experiments are as follows: A Cu-complex dye which has a high resistance to light fading in a cellophane films (cf. our previous report) shows no appreciable difference in the decrease of optical density in a aqueous solution, compared with BAG. By the selected light, such as λ=3000_??_4000Â rays, the aqueous solutions of the above-named two dyes are faded in the same degree, and by the other light BAG is more easily faded than by the Cu-complex. CR is faded more rapidly than other two dyes under the exposure to carbon arc lamp.