This study examines the personal networks of working mothers and the support they receive thereof in child care. This research uses data obtained from a survey made in the year 2000 on 278 working mothers in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The findings indicate that mothers rely on instrumental support more from their relatives living with or near them than from their friends. My investigation on emotional support, on the other hand, shows that they seem to rely on the relatives on their side rather than their husbands' side, and that, so far as emotional support goes, they do not seem to count on their husbands' relatives so much as on their friends whose children go to same nursery or elementary school. The degree of instrumental support they receive is related to the residential distance from relatives, while the degree of emotional support is related more to the strength of emotional ties than mere distance. The network size affects both the instrumental and the emotional support statistics. Larger support is likely to be offered to mothers in large networks than those in small networks. Furthermore, it should be noted that the size of network of friends is related to the mothers' attributes and characteristics such as the number of children, the age of the eldest child, the number of friends their children have, and how mothers view companionship.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the shapes of 3-dimensional basic bodice patterns by using a 3-dimensional model. In this paper we proposed a modified 3-dimensional model that could be applied for basic bodice patterns with different widths in front and back body parts. It was examined whether the side and the arm hole of these bodice patterns are on the same plane. Furthermore, the relationship between body width and the amount of side darts was considered in detail. The results are summarized as follows. 1) It was found that there are 11 types (A, D, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, O, S) out of 18 basic bodice patterns which can be explained by the modified 3-dimensional model. Four types (A, E, I, S) out of 11 have the same width in the front and back body parts. Three types (D, K, L) out of 11 have wider back body parts than front body pats and the remaining four types (G, H, J, O) have narrower back body parts than front body parts. 2) Seven types (B, C, F, M, P, R, T) out of 18 basic bodice patterns were not concordant with their developed patterns of the modified 3-dimensional model. The shifting distance between the shoulder points of the front body part and the back body part is permissible to construct a 3-dimensional shell. 3) It was concluded that the modified 3-dimensional model can be used effectively when determining the height of the bust, body width, the amount of side darts and the arm hole line.
The effects of soybean dietary fiber (SDF) on the texture of gellan gum gel in the presence and absence of added calcium chloride or sodium chloride were examined by a sensory evaluation. The concentrations of SDF were 3%, 9% and 12 %, the calcium chloride concentration was 2 mm, and the sodium chloride concentration was 50 mm. The “color” was deeper with higher concentration of SDF. “Hardness” and “brittleness” of gellan gum gels containing 3% SDF, were affected by added calcium chloride or sodium chloride. Added SDF was found to increase “adhesiveness” of gellan gum gel. “Color, ” “ease of pulling a teaspoon from the sample after cutting, ” “odor” and “adhesiveness” in the mouth all showed marked positive correlations (r>0.97, p< 0.01) with each other.