The purpose of this study is to examine what affluence means for the aged having respective views toward their way of life. For this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the consciousness of living of the aged in a hilly and mountainous area, and the replies were processed by principal component analysis as well as covariance structure analysis. The main results are as follows : 1) The concept or sense of affluence was evaluated in terms of Four types of activities, i.e., the income-related activities, the consumption-related activities, the life improvement activities, and the activities to secure against future risks. 2) The activities related to income earning may be divided into two different groups, i.e., whether the aged are included in extended or nuclear families. 3) As to whether or not the aged consider that they lead an affluent life, their absolute evaluation showed a contradictory relation to the relative evaluation of their consciousness. 4) Their sense of affluence seems furthered by the sense of togetherness with their families. 5) Their ability to achieve a high degree of affluence in terms of leading a way of life true to themselves, is limited. 6) Although the method employed had the disadvantage of only being able to draw on a portion of a variety of potential information, a clear comparison of the characteristics of individual households was attained.
The effects on the cholesterol and fatty acid contents of eggs by the usual cooking procedures were investigated. Both contents were not significantly reduced by wet-cooking procedures such as boiling, poaching, pot-steaming, and making into egg soup. With the dry-cooking procedures, omelet using beaten eggs absorbed cooking oil, while frying and deep-frying, not using beaten eggs, significantly reduced the cholesterol inside the egg yolk membrane. In doughnuts, the efflux of cholesterol from the egg to the cooking oil was at least 32%. These results suggest that nutritional education/management focusing on the cholesterol content of egg dishes is important.
Various kinds of periodical phenomena are observed in the natural world and in the social systems. Even in apparel fashion trends, people feel some periodical changes exist. This paper presented a trial to qualitatively characterize such a periodicity which appeared in apparel fashion trends. For this purpose, numerical data for the length of ladies jackets and skirts proposed in a popular fashion magazine published in Japan from 1960 to 1998 were used. Data were treated with some mathematical techniques including Fourier transformation analysis, self-correlation analysis and common statistical methods. Results obtained are as follows; 1) Comparing the distribution of length for clothes proposed in a given year with the length of the clothing selected by a person as being representative of the year, it was clarified that the length of the representative clothing selected by the person coincided with the mode value for the distribution. 2) Three major changes in the length of jackets and skirts were found over the years, the first change after a periodic time of 10 years, the second after 20 years and the third after 40 years. The change which occurred after 10 years periodicity was the most profound one. 3) The 10-year periodicity may be correlated with the period of use of apparel, while 20-year periodicity may be connected to the length of time which takes for women to develop a mature fashion sense. The 40-year periodicity remains unclear, but it covers two generations and, therefore, is long enough for the revival of an old fashion as a new fashion.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the changes in life stage of the dwellers in a suburban detached housing area in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the trends of their intergenerational living. The residential style and family networks among middle-aged couples and their aged parents are focused on in view of today's aging society and extended life span. The results are as follows : 1) The ratio of couples with parents still living is 80.0-100.0%, 47.8% and 22.2% for couples aged 50-64, 65-69 and 70-74 respectively. Many of those parents are widows, many of whom have lead their widowhood for a long period of time. 2) In this residential area, there was an increase in intergenerational households 10-15 years after development of the area. The reason is that some couples began to take in their aged parents who had been living in other areas. 3) As their parents advanced in age and/or lost their partners, the mutual support and interactions between the surveyed couples and their parents changed into the unilateral support by the couples to the parents and interactions between the two. Noteworthy is those couples born and raised into the Tokyo metropolitan area living near their parents in that their support and interactions with parents are more active than their counterparts from other areas. Thus it is clear that in the suburban detached housing area the changes in the household composition and life-style patterns of middle-aged residents are affected by their parents' aging.