地理学評論
Online ISSN : 2185-1719
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
55 巻 , 10 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
  • 伊藤 悟
    1982 年 55 巻 10 号 p. 673-689
    発行日: 1982/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    従来の理論的研究は,空間的相互作用モデルの距離パラメータを規定する要因として,行動・配置・空間的自己相関の3要素を提唱している.そこで本研究は,東京都市圏における距離パラメータの地域パターンとその差異の要因を分析し,行動・配置の両要素を実証的に考察した.活用したモデルは発生制約型のエントロピー最大化モデルである.このモデルを自動車交通流動に当てはめ,東京都市圏内87地区の距離パラメータを,改良Hyman法により推定した.その結果,抽出された地域パターンでは,都市圏の中心部から周縁部へ向かい,距離パラメータが増加し,このパターンは行動要素に深く影響されたものであることが明らかになった.そこで,この行動要素を地区の具体的属性に求めた結果,それは運輸通信・サービス・卸売・公務の各産業特化度および高速道路網への近接性であることが判明した.
  • 貞方 昇
    1982 年 55 巻 10 号 p. 690-706
    発行日: 1982/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    中国山地においてかつて盛んに行なわれていた鉄穴流しは,各地に大規模な地形改変を引き起こした.本稿では,鉄穴流しが,斐伊川流域の自然環境変遷の中で,どのような役割を果たしたかを明らかにするため,地形的な特徴から鉄穴流し跡地の分布を確定し,その面積および廃砂量について検討した.鉄穴流し跡地はその形態から,稼行当時の状態を残すものと,水田や畑地などに改変されたものとに大別される.前者は,切羽跡の高い崖や,掘削から取り残された鉄穴残丘と呼ばれる高まり,および巨円礫などの存在から容易に識別され,後者も棚田や段々畑の中に残存する特異な急崖や鉄穴残丘の組合せによって,自然崩壊地形やほかの人工改変地形との識別が可能である.鉄穴流し跡地は斐伊川上流域に多く分布する.とくに山麓斜面と山頂緩斜面からなる地域に集中し,それらは花崗閃緑岩ないし閃緑岩の分布地域ともよく一致する.鉄穴流し跡地の総面積は3.5×107rn2に及び,このうち27%が斐伊川本流の上流地域にある.流域の総廃砂量は地形単位別の採掘土厚を手がかりとして, 1.5×108~2.2×108m3と見積られた.これは古文書等の記録から算定された値とも近く,斐伊川流域では近世初頭以来,人為による大規模な地形改変が行なわれたことが明らかとなった.
  • 宇都宮 陽二朗
    1982 年 55 巻 10 号 p. 707-714
    発行日: 1982/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    The author tried to estimate the water quality (Secchi disk transparency) of Lake Kasumigaura and other lakes in the northern Kanto plain by means of multivariate analyses and computer mapping techniques. The results of this estimation were as follows.
    1. The water quality estimation models were derived from the multiple regression analysis of LANDSAT and ground truth data in Lake Kasumigaura (Jan. 19, 1980).
    2. Among these models, the Secchi disk transparency estimation model retained the highest ratio of contribution and the signal in band 6 was adopted independent variable of the model.
    3. It is quite difficult to fit this model to the data of the oligotrophic lakes for such reasons as weak energy penetration of the near-infrared wave-lengths and restriction in the model itself.
    4. On the other hand, it is possible to apply this model to the data in Lake Kasumigaura and other eutrophic lakes, of which the transparency are below 1.59m and located in the lowland.
    5. In Lake Kasumigaura the estimated transparency (Secchi disk transparency) reduced from the center or the areas adjacent of the outlet to Tsuchiurairi and Takahamairi estuaries.
    6. In Lake Kitaura the estimated transparency reduced from the southern part of the lake and its value was relatively higher than that of the center of the lake Kasumigaura.
    7. In Lake Hinuma the estimated transparency had uniform pattern with the same value as that of the central part of Lake Kasumigaura.
    8. There might be two approaches in the future application of regression analysis into satellite remote sensing of lake water pollution. The one is to get optimal regression using numerous ground truth data in various lakes and to amend the model for each lake depending upon each circumstance of the lake. The other is to cluster various lakes into a few groups which have similar physical and chemical conditions before the application of the analysis, and store the water quality estimation models for each group. For the practical purpose, the latter seems to be more preferable than the former.
    9. The ground truth observations might be carried out efficiently after the derivation of the model, but the collection of a few kinds of data would be required for the corrections of the video data.
  • 上野 健一
    1982 年 55 巻 10 号 p. 715-734
    発行日: 1982/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    The study of urban factorial ecology has become popular among Japanese geographers because this is one of the most useful methods for analyzing basic urban residential dimensions and structures. This field of study in Japan, however, takes little consideration of the results of traditional studies of urban residential structures.
    The first point at issue in this paper is the spatial and social significance of the two main ecological factors, i.e., socio-economic status and family status. Since the spatial patterns of socio-economic status factor are arranged by sectors, these are coincident with the sactorial patterns of high status residential areas by Hoyt. Thus, it is necessary to explore the relationships between the spatial patterns of socio-economic status by the factorial method and those of high status residential areas by the traditional method. Family status factor displays concentric patterns and, therefore, the areal patterns of age structures and life cycles need to be investigated in detail.
    The second point at issue is the study of ecological change through time. This kind of study can be approached by two analytical methods: cross-sectional analysis and longitudinal one. The former is a comparison of ecological structures between two time periods, and the latter is a matter of ecological change through time. Since the longitudinal analysis compares the differences in the rate of change of variables between two time periods, the amount of variation of variables which can be explained by factors is smaller than that of the cross-sectional analysis method. Thus, it is necessary to select a proper analytical method by considering the relative merits of various measures of change. In view of the length of time for analysis, the study of ecological change is divided into short-time studies and long-time ones. The former is to explore the uniformly continuous change in recent time, the latter is to explore the historical change over a long period of time, which is especially related to the problem of the historical residential development.
    In order to analyze the residential structures in Japanese cities synthetically, the results of factorial ecological studies are to be discussed in comparison not only with the results of the earlier studies in the U. S. A. which possesses the typical ethnic differences, but also with the results in the other countries which possess little ethnic differences in terms of residential structures. Moreover, it is necessary to explore the complex interrelationships between ecological factors and residential structures by traditional method, and also to formulate the model of historical residential developments in Japan.
  • 1982 年 55 巻 10 号 p. 735-738
    発行日: 1982/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
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