The effects of calcium antagonists in relation to cerebral vessels and circulation were widely reviewed throughout the literature. Their effectiveness in stroke and migraine patients were also discussed. Calcium antagonists usually inhibit cerebral vasoconstriction induced by various agents in vivo. They seem to dilate pial and basilar arteries in vitro, and increase cerebral blood flow in normal animals. Cerebral vasospasms, produced experimentally or in patients, are readily reversed by calcium antagonists. Clinical trials of these drugs on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage are now under way, with some favorable preliminary outcomes. There are a number of investigations on the effects of calcium antagonists on cerebral circulation following experimental cerebral ischemia, but the results are not uniform, probably due to the various experimental conditions used. The therapeutic effects of calcium antagonists on ischemic stroke patients are mostly demonstrated in their chronic stage, and studies on patients with acute strokes are scarce. Calcium antagonists are also shown to be beneficial in the prophylaxis of migraine attacks. Although there are yet many problems to be investigated, the usefulness of calcium antagonists on medical practice may be promising.