Studies on the air concentration of the pesticide aerosol and its acute effects on the farm worker were done ; that is, the air concentration of spread ZINEB (Zinc ethylene-bisdithiocarbamate) in a vinyl greenhouse was determinated, and blood, urine of the operator and suboperator were tested serially. Results 1) The maximum air concentration on spraying was 0.32mg/me ; and the concentration at 30min. after spraying was reduced to half. This was true for the time of ventilation working of facilities. That of the harvest time was about ten times compared with that of the growth time. 2) R.M.R. during spraying was 1.5-1.8 (operator) and 0.4-1.4 (suboperator). Inhalation of the pesticide was calculated at 0.27mg when R.M.R. was 1.8 ; air inhalation per minute was 15 ; spraying time was 60min.; and air concentration of the pesticide was 0.3mg/ms. This volume was not important compared with LD50 of ZINEB (=orally in mice: 686.3mg/kg). 3) Liver function data, blood and urine tests of the operator and suboperator were not significant compared with those at the end of spraying or an hour after spraying.
An adhesion volume for the farm worker was determinated as a base line study considering accident prevention in case of contact pesticide by farm workers in vinyl greenhouses. Results 1) Adhesion volume was found greatest on the leg part and then in decreasing volume as follows: upperarm, head, forearm part; in other words, the farther away from the body to the periphery, the higher the adhesion volume. 2) On the same crop, the adhesion volume to the farm worker on spraying in harvest time increased more in head, upperarm, and abdomen part compared with that in growth time. 3) On different crops (that is, tomato crop and cucumber crop), the adhesion volume on spraying in the cucumber crop was more in leg, chest, abdomen and back part than in the tomato crop.
Ama is a professional sea-diving woman for fishing and her occupational disease has been reported in some localities of her body, especially in the ear. This report was compiled as a result of the otological examination of Ama at Hekura Island in Ishikawa Prefecture. The number of Ama interviewed was 40, The results were as follows: 1) Ages ranged from 15 to 58, all of them female. 2) The main complaints in the auditory organ were otalzia, blockade of the ear and tinnitus, but deafness in few subjects. 3) The abnormal view of eardrums was found 75% by the otological examination, most of which showed sinking, turbidness or roughness.Especially we found the exostosis in external ear canal in 7 Ama. 4) The resulting loss of hearing was indicated in half of them, whose type was generally sensorineural deafness and increased with ages. 5) In almost all, the inflation of the auditory tube was good. 6) Ama are considered to indicate that all these symptoms were caused by external agents in the sea, namely the water pressure equilibration of the ear during diving.
In a year, from the beginning of my clinic on July 1972 until June 1973, 1, 110 patients have visited; 628 were male and 482 were female.Males showed the tendency to retain hospital visit in spring and autumn when they are busy with farming.Out of 1, 110 patients 71 were refered from doctors outside of the hospital, 346 were from other clinics in the hospital. Diseases were classified following the International Classification of Disease.Simple cystitis, benign prostatic hypertrophy and upper urinary tract calculi were most frequent. Their, and also doctors who concerned, misunderstanding and ignorance of recent progress in urological management stimulated me to survey my experience and explain modern trends in the field.Urinary tract tuberculosis were sometimes considered as nonspecific chronic cystitis;ureteral stones were not recognized on x-ray film;postrenal uremic state were confused with renal parenchymal failure. The value of pyelolithotomy in situ and transurethral resection were also stressed.
Preceding reports suggested many asymptomatic hepatitis B virus infection.To ascertain the conclusion sera from patients were studied for half a year. Three acute hepatitis and 19 asymptomatic infection had occurred among hospitalized patients without apparent chance of exposion.Asymptomatic infection means antigenemia without subjective complaints and biochemical changes.One of them became an antigen carrier and others were transient positives. The study revealed naturally occurred 9 apparent hepatitis and 26 infections without apparent liver involvement. Most of them were quite symptomless, however, some of them complained malaise, fever, diarrhea, exanthema, itching and/or arthralgia.They showed normal serum GOT value expect one personel and recovered completely.Only one case carried the antigen persistently. These results support the view.There are frequent chances of the virus infection in this rural area. Most of them recover with no trouble.The rate of aproximately 20%who keep the antibody in the population can be now understood.The ratio of asymptomatic infection to apparent hepatitis may over 6 mals.Some of them become carrier of the antigen.Familial defect in allowance may result the clustering of the antigen carrier in a family.
The exudative constitution (hypersensitivity of skin and mucous membrane) is much observed in infant stage, showing hypersensitive reactions of skin and mucous membrane to the environmental stimuli, very often together with the resultant physical disturbance. The author, first of all, attributed the changes of hypersensitive phenomena of the skin and mucous membran originated from the outer stratum of embryo, to the changes or reduction in the Vitamin A content, as a nutritional factor. Since Vitamin A plays a dominant role in the growth of the combined tissue such as skin and mucous membrane, a clinical, biochemical study was made, and the results are briefly reported as follows: (A) After statistical observations of exudative constitution in infants, 1) The morbidity was 26 per cent in rural districta as compared with 18 per cent in urban communties. 2) Even in rural districts, the morbidity was 50.5 per cent in cases of farming (including dairying) families as compared with 28.2 per cent in cases of salaried classes such as instructors, public servants as well as company and 1 or factory employees. 3) The ratio of physical changes of skin to those of mucous membrane was 1: 0.79 in cases of suburban districts including farming villages, as compared with that of 1: 1.62 in urban areas-which implies more skin changes in rural districts. (B) With respect to the biological examination of nursing mothers and their infants, 1) Vitamin A content of the nursing mother's milk showed a higher decreasing tendency in the infants with advanced symptoms, 2) Vitamin A content of the suckling mother's blood sera showed a higher decreasing tendency in the infants with advanced disturbance of skin and mucous membrane. 3) Vitamin A content of the infant's blood sera showed a higher decreasing tendency in the infants with advanced disturbance of skin and mucous membrane, the correlation coefficient being 0.382. From the above-mentioned observations, it is concluded that exudative constitution is found more in rural districts and that the more of such tendency is found, the more tendency of Vitamin A content decline. In addition, the results of internal and ointmental application of Vitamin A to such cases are now being observed. (The author wishes his deep graditude to the kind subsudy donated by Hokkaido Rural Medicine Association for this research, continously three times, in the years of 1971, 1972 and 1973).