It is said that medical care is a social application of medicine to the benefit of community or individual. In step with progress in medicine, medical care has been made all the more complicated. Moreover, the system supporting medical care has fallen behind the times when its surroundings have been changing drastically. This situation could be ascribed to the institutional fatigue that the system itself is suffering from after a long period of existence. It also can be pointed out that there have been revolutionary changes in traditional Japanese cultural values together with the awareness of people concering health. However, the primary factor that lies behind need of reform is financial difficulties. At present, in connection with deregulation of medical care, the introduction of mixed medical care and the entry of joint-stock corporations are taken up for discussion as topics of the day. In the meantime heated debates are being held over the subjects of institutional reform including the setting up of medical care for the aged as part of the fee-for-service system and reconstruction of the network of providers of health care and services. Moreover, the institutions that are engaged in the practice of medicine are expected to tackle a broad range of tasks- -catching up with ever-progressing information technology, disclosure of information, and strengthening of safety measures against medical accients, among many others. However, these are not the issues which have cropped up in recent years. Many have been brought up and discussed from an angle a little different from what it is today. It is now high time for us to discuss these issues through and through in light of actual situations while looking back on the history of medical care and its system. In this paper the author shall dwell on the development of the nation's medical system and point out some problems confronting us today with the use of some materials thus far presented by the Japan Medical Association. His view is based on his personal experience in hospital management and with the Japan Medical Association.
加齢に伴いこれまで担ってきた家庭的・社会的役割を喪失することの多い高齢者では,活動性が低下しやすく,時に身体的・精神的機能低下を引き起こしてしまうこともある。地域で行われる余暇活動の開発は高齢者の活動性やQuality of Life (QOL) の維持・向上に役立つものと思われるが,こうした余暇活動の効果はまだあまり実証されていない。今回われわれは農村部に居住する424名の高齢住民 (平均年齢71.6±4.8SD歳) を対象に,余暇活動を楽しむことと幸福感等との関連を明らかにするため調査を行った。調査項目として生活環境や,日常生活動作 (ADL) などの身体状況,外出の頻度,余暇活動を楽しいと感じる程度およびPGC主観的幸福感を含めた。この結果,楽しいと思う活動は「入浴」,「食事」,「テレビ」の順であった。余暇活動の中では「食事」や「入浴」を楽しむことがPGC主観的幸福感と正の関連を持ち,逆に「パチンコや麻雀などの賭けごと」を楽しむことは負の関連を示した。「動物の相手」を楽しむ者は閉じこもりが少なかった。PGC主観的幸福感を従属変数とする回帰分析では,人間関係の悩み,「パチンコや麻雀などの賭けごと」を楽しむこと,基本的ADL,体の痛み,独居を予測値とした有意なモデルが構築された。これらの結果は今後地域で高齢者の余暇活動を促進していくにあたり,有用な知見を与えた。