The apparent photosynthesis curves of the sun and the shade leaf of the evergreen broad-leaved trees are presented. The twelve species which selected for the materials were the dominant and the characteristic species in the forest which is the climax community of the warm-temperate region in Japan. Ecological analysis on the structure and development of this commnity was carried out on the basis of the concept of the plant production (matter production) by making clear the apparent photosynthesis curve of each species.
1. The analytical studies were made to clarify the community structure after drainage, especially of the amphiphyte zone on the littoral areas. Three typical types of vegetation are recognized in about thirty artificial reservoirs, in Fukui, Shiga and Hiroshima Prefectures in Japan, whose basins are dried up in summer. 2. The first vegetation type indicates the regular zonal arrangement, and is characterized by the amphiphyte zone which is predominated by the annual plant communities. The second type exhibits the typical vegetation type, which is the intermediate structure between the first and the third, as usually found in many never-dried up pond vegetations, and its amphiphyte zone is occupied by the communities of both of the large- and the small-stemmed emergent plants. The third type shows the marshy vegetation, and it is most remarkable that its amphiphyte zone which is occupied by the communities of the large-stemmed emergent plants, especially by Phragmites, spread out over the central areas. 3. According to the analytical studies of life-form spectrum, Hemicryptophytes generally seem to be abundant in the basins of all three types. Besides, the amphiphte zone of the first type indicates therophytic, of the second shows hydrophytic and of the third is helophytic type. 4. The components of Therophytes in each dominant community remarkably increase in the amphyiphyte zone of the first vegetation type, though they decrease in those of the second type. On the contrary, the helophytic components are moderately poor in the amphiphyte zone of the first type though they are considerably abundant in the second and the third vegetation types. 5. The hydrarch which succeeded from the first to the second and ended in the third type will be illustrated in the vegetation among the three types of the artificial reservoirs. 6. The preservation of seeds of the annuals under the edaphic condition in winter, interspecific correlation between the germination ability of annuals, and the biotic control of Helophyes to annuals will be effective for the development of early stage of the community after drainage in the artificial reservoirs.
1) The light of FL-20D (Mazda day-light fluorescent lamp of 20watt) can hardly induce flower on Silene Armeria when supplied to the plant for 10 days. But the light of IL-20 (Mazda incandescent lamp of 20watt) or the combination of FL-20D and IL-20 can readily induce flowering. 2) Flickering of light has no marked effect on the photoperiodic induction. 3) Light of FL-20pk (Mazda pink fluorescent lamp of 20watt) which contains abundant light of 6000-6500Å is less effective than that of incandescent lamp comprising abundant light of longer wave lengths. 4) If during the continuous illumination with FL-20D×2, additive illumination with various duration of IL-20 was supplied daily, flower initiation in percentage increased, following a sigmoid curve, with the increasing duration of supplemental illumination. 5) Light of both FL-20D×2 and IL-20 shows the same effect when used as a light break. 6) It is concluded that the light of IL-20 with its higher content of longer wave lengths would have a positive flower-promoting effect and that the lower effectiveness of the light of FL-20D may be due to the lack of light of long wave length.
Silene Armeria can hardly be induced to flower when exposed to 18 hour light period of Mazda day-light fluorescent lamp of 20watt (FL-20D) for 14 days, but can readily initiate flower primordia if an 8 hour light of incandescent lamp of 20 watt (IL-20) is supplemented daily. The supplementary light of IL-20 is given more effectively in the last than in the first 8 hours of light period. The 18 hour light period is given as a combination of 8 hours of IL-20 and subsequent 10 hours of FL-20D. An illumination sequence: FL-20D→IL-20 is more favorable for flower initiation than the reversed one. The FL-20D treatment followed by the IL-20 appears to be more favorable for flower initiation than the IL-20 alone. From the above facts, the flower promoting light period is postulated to be separated into two processes, one of which proceeds favorably under the light of daylight fluorescent lamp and effectuates the following process which gives rise to a flower promoting effect and is favored by the light of incandescent lamp comprising abundant light of long wave length (longer than 6500Å).
1. Chlamydomonas sp. 24 which is heterothallic and morphologically isogamous, shows remarkable differentiation in its sexuel behaviour between each mating type. 2. One of the mating types which has been designated as “plus” acts as male and is chemotactically attracted beyond long distance to the filtrate or the gametes of the “minus” mating type. But the reverse was not at all the same. However finally the flagella of both gametes seem to have some similar adhesive mechanism in the clump-formation. The nature of the chemotactic agent is yet uncertain. 3. Once the two capulants were linked together by a protoplasmic bridge, only the “plus” partner was responsible to the propulsion of the mating pair. The motility direction is limited only in one direction as was observed in Chlamydomonasmoewusii (7).
1. The present paper deals with the nuclear migration from the diploid mycelium into the haploid mycelium in the illegitimate combination, using Coprinus macrorhizus Rea f. microsporus Hongo (a tetrapolar fungus). 2. Nuclear constitution of the resulting diploid mycelium was analyzed after Quintanilha's method (1938) in which three incompatibility factors of the A or the B series were provided and the illegitimate combination was followed by the legitimate combination. 3. The results of analyses show migration of both nuclei of the diploid mycelium through the haploid mycelium, with one exception that exchange of incompatibility factors between the nuclei of a diploid mycelium seems to have occurred. 4. In the present experiments, two instances were obtained that both nuclei of the diploid mycelium passed through the haploid mycelium not only in the illegitimate but also in the legitimate combinations.