Middle and Late Permian (Capitanian and Changhsingian) radiolarians were obtained from chert blocks located within conglomerates of the Kamiaso Unit of the Mino terrane along Tsubogawa River, Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan. Previously, the Capitanian and Changhsingian cherts have not been reported from the sequences of the Akiyoshi terrane. Therefore, the collected chert blocks were not derived from the Akiyoshi terrane. The Capitanian and Changhsingian cherts have been recovered from the Permian sequences of Jurassic accretionary complexes in Southwest Japan; however, the characteristics of the Permian radiolarian fauna of the chert blocks are inconsistent with those from previously recovered Permian cherts. This indicates that the chert blocks were not derived from previously known units including Permian sequences. A previous study suggested that Triassic-Jurassic chert clasts within the chert breccias of the Kamiaso Unit were derived from the accreted Kamiaso Unit on the landward trench slope. As the Permian chert has not been identified in the coherent facies of the Kamiaso Unit, the Permian sequences must have been subducted during accretion. Our results suggest that the chert blocks were derived from the pre-accretion Kamiaso Unit located on the outer trench slope.
Latest Jurassic to Cretaceous radiolarians have been identified in coarse-grained sandstones from the Middle Miocene Chichibumachi Formation of the Akahira Group, which occurs in the Chichibu Basin, Saitama Prefecture, central Japan. The following radiolarians were identified: Pseudodictyomitra lanceloti Schaaf, Holocryptocanium barbui Dumitrica, Diacanthocapsa betica O'Dogherty, Thanarla brouweri (Tan), Archaeodictyomitra sp. A, Archaeodictyomitra sp. B, Archaeodictyomitra? sp., Sethocapsa sp. A, Sethocapsa sp. B, Sethocapsa? sp., and Diacanthocapsa? sp. Radiolarian-bearing sandstone is present at ca. 22 m above the level containing Middle Miocene Paleoparadoxia tabatai, which is a marine mammalian fossil. Radiolarians occur within the sandstone as isolated specimens, along with fragments of bivalves, foraminifers, plant fossils, and quartz grains, some of the radiolarian specimens appear to have been reworked from the Ishido Formation or younger formations of the Sanchu Cretaceous System that crops out to the northwest of the Chichibu Basin.
Stratiform manganese deposits are present in Triassic to Jurassic bedded chert sequences of the Chichibu Belt in southwest Japan, which are considered to have accumulated in a mid-ocean basin of the Panthalassa Ocean. To constrain the age and depositional setting of these deposits, we have investigated the field geology, stratigraphy, and age of chert-hosted manganese deposits (Takahira, Takahama, and Kubodomari) from the Chichibu Belt in the Saiki area, Oita Prefecture. The stratiform manganese ores range in thickness from 80 to 150 cm and are intercalated with bedded chert. The age of the deposits is constrained by the presence of radiolarian fossils in the associated bedded chert. The red-bedded chert above the Takahira manganese ores contains Late Triassic (Carnian) radiolarian fossils, including Trialatus longicornutus, Trialatus megacornutus, and Enoplocampe yehae. In contrast, radiolarian fossils from the Takahama and Kubodomari deposits occur in stratiform manganese ores of Early Jurassic age (possibly Toarcian), based on the occurrence of Parvicingula nanoconica with Parahsuum and Trillus species. These results suggest that two manganese ore forming events occurred in the pelagic Panthalassa Ocean during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic.