Objective The objetive of the paper are to introduce the current global tobacco control measures undertaken by WHO and other international organizations, and to describe the impact on domestic tobacco control in Japan. Methods Publications and documents, mainly for WHO, were reviewed especially with reference to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Results WHO has been promotion comprehensive tobacco cotrol globally as well as regionally in order to assist and promote its national health policy. In 1998, WHO established the Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI) to take action against the growing health impact of tobacco consumption around the world. WHO has also been proposing the FCTC, the first international convention in the health field, which includes, for example, restrictions on advertisement, selling to, or buying from persons aged under 18. Currently, the FCTC is beint negotiated by governments and is expected to be ratified before May 2003. WHO is also working together with other international organizations, such as the World Bank, in synchronizing its global tobacco control policy. Discussion and Conclusions “Smoking and health” is, without doubt, the most significant public health problem internationally and domestically. However, tobacco control tends to be less strict in Japan than in other developed countries. Even among health personnel in Japan, the health impact is still underestimated, thus its cintrol remains partial. Accelerated public health compaigns against tobacco and health promotion activities are greatly needed. These could be carried out more effectively in the broad context of promotion of the FCTC.