Using a W-La2O3 gated MOSFET structure, we report the effect of substrate and gate injection of electrons on the breakdown and electrical degradation characteristics of the gate stack. Using the carrier separation measurement technique, we are able to identify the major contributor to leakage current under various stress conditions. By stressing n- and p-channel MOSFETs with positive and negative gate voltages respectively, the degradation (Vth shift) after stress is obtained and compared to the polarity of the applied stress.
This paper extends the circuit implementation of a complex ƒs/4 resonator based on integrators towards double-sampling. Next, an improved double-sampled circuit implementation of a complex ƒs/4 resonator based on delays is introduced. The key features of the proposed circuit are that mismatch does not affect the center frequency nor limit the Q-factor of the resonator and lower sensitivity towards opamp gain. To verify the analytical results extracted in this paper, simulation results are presented.