Simple arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) structure which demultiplexes wavelengths to output ports arranged in 2D plane is proposed. The planar geometry provides easy fabrication of the device. An AWG is connected to a device forming a 2D aperture array, which generates smaller dispersion in orthogonal direction against that generated by AWG.
This paper discusses and evaluates, in terms of number of wavelength channels and router port count, different grooming strategies exploiting the benefits of statistical multiplexing. For the network design, a hybrid solution, combining the advantages of both the end-to-end and the link-by-link grooming scenario, is proposed.
In this paper, a new phase-interpolation DDS scheme is proposed, which uses the output of the phase accumulator to provide positive-slope integration on an integration capacitor in the first phase, and then performs negative-slope integration operation on the same integration capacitor in the second phase. By using dual-slope integration on a single capacitor, the delay time error caused by capacitance error can be avoided and the die size can be reduced in circuit implementation. Therefore, the proposed DDS without ROM tables can achieve a low-jitter clock output due to generating the more precise delay time.
The implementation of large-valued floating resistive elements using MOS transistors in subthreshold region is addressed. The application of these elements to bias wideband AC coupled amplifiers is discussed. Simple schemes to generate the gate control voltages for the MOS transistors implementing large resistors so that they remain in high resistive state with large signal variations are discussed. Experimental results of a test chip prototype in 0.5-µm CMOS technology are presented that verify the proposed technique.
I fabricated an inverted-mesa quartz resonator having a 2.2-µm-thick vibrating area by wet etching. The resonator excited a 622-MHz-fundamental thickness vibration. By selecting a 30-nm-thick gold electrode, the temperature-frequency characteristics exhibited a cubic curve with a frequency deviation of 26ppm over a range of temperature from -40°C to +85°C. Furthermore, the resonator was miniaturized to reduce loss caused by the film resistance, and to decrease the parallel capacitance. The series resistance at the noninductive resonance frequency was 33ohm and the parallel capacitance was 0.96pF. Therefore, the fundamental thickness vibration had a wide inductive region.
The major drawback of the fractal image compression is the high encoding complexity to find the best match between a range block and a large pool of domain blocks. This paper presents a fast fractal-encoding algorithm based on the law of cosines. The number of domain blocks searched to find the best match for each range block is safely reduced by eliminating the ineligible domain blocks using the law of cosines. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can produce a completely identical fractal code to that of the exhaustive search in reduced time.