Functions of the liver are complex and variegated, while the examination methods for each of metabolic functions are also numerous in kinds. Concerning the examination of liver functions the relationship between the kind of examination methods and liver histological picture as well as the incidence requiring the examination of liver functions in various liver diseases were discussed, but in actual practice since the routine of examining liver functions now in use has been develeped primarily as an auxillary step for the diagnosis of liver diseases, it is far from revealing actual physiological functions of the liver. In view of this, when one examines the relationship between the liver function and diseases other than liver disease including skin diseases, one must bear in mind the significance revealed by such liver function examinations. In addition, as the liver has a vigorous compensatory power, there is observed a dissociation between the patho-morphological findings and the results of liver function examination. and this point has been explained from the aspects of various cases, and the relationship between the oxygen uptake and the value of circulating hepatic blood flow in the liver.
For a long time the attention has been paid to the close relationship of the skin to the liver in the various skin diseases, but the details is obscure as ever. Therefore, in order to throw a light on this problem, I attempted to inquire into skin-liver interrelation in the eczematous dermatitis. And then the conclusion of my clinical and experimental investigation was as follows. 1. Author made nummerous liver function tests in many cases of eczema, and found positive values of tests in about fifty nine % out of all consequently. 2. The hepatic function was disturbed in all rabbits with croton oil induced dermatitis, and both pattern of the hepatic disturbance and of the skin lesion followed same time course. 3. The development of the skin lesion and the liver disturbance in the croton oil dermatitis was severer in the rabbits treated with CCl4 beforehand than of without such treatment. 4. In addition to the aforesaid observations I made needle biopsy of the liver, and found the following histological changes in six out of seven cases in consequence: anisocaryosis, vacuolated nuclei, fatty infiltration, fibrosis in the portal area. Therefore the liver biopsy permits us to conclude an important role of the liver in eczema.
Estradiol-3H and estrone-14C were incubated with minced normal corium, endometrium, myometrium and corium of sclerodermia. Following the incubation, radioactive Estradiol estrone, 16-epi-estriol and estriol were recovered. The conversion ratio of each tissue which was calculated as the rate of converted estrogen to estrogen that was incubated as substrate, was constant and different each other. The conversion ratio of normal corium was the highest and the corium of sclerodermia had the lowest ratio. In the corium of sclerodermia, the estriol ratios which were calculated as the rates of recovered estriol to estradiol and estrone recovered, were much lower than those of other normal tissues significantly. These findings extend that 1) human corium, endometrium and myometrium might convert estrogens to estriol and 2) the conversion of estrogens to others especially to estriol seems to be inhibited considerably in the corium of sclerodermia.
The first section of this article will attempt to show the relationship of abnormal sex hormonal states to change in the skin. The second section will deal with some recent concepts in hormonal influence on various skin components (the epidermis, melanocyte, hair, sebaceous gland, peripheral blood vessel, connective tissue and reticuloendothelial system), with some references to possible autoimmmune reaction.
Percutaneous absorption of 3H-labelled betamethasone 17-valerate cream under plastic film was studied by means of an autoradiography. It has been proved that betamethasone 17-valerate is readily absorbed in the normal skin. For the application under plastic film, a considerable amount of this steroid is easily absorbed through the horny layer and the malpighian layer of epidermis. Basal layer of epidermis serves as a skin barrier for the percutaneous absorption of this steroid through the normal skin. Stratum basale barrier for the percutaneous absoption of this steroid may be induced by the steroid-holding function of the prickle cells in the stratum malpighii. Steroid absorbed percutaneously may be transfered from cells to cells.
It has recently been reported that some viruses cause chromosome damage both in vitro and in vivo. So chromosomal studies were carried out in cultured peripheral lymphocytes from 72 patients with herpes simplex (9), varicella (15), herpes zoster (48), and 25 normal controls. The results were summerized as follows.: 1) Almost all the cases of herpes simplex have not shown any chromosomal abnormalities, as well as a low incidence of chromosomal aberration in controls. 2) The patients with varicella and herpes zoster tended to show the high incidence of chromosomal aberrations such as gaps, breaks, fragments in chromatids or chromosomes as compared with controls, but reunion of broken chromosomes was seen less frequently in varicella. In addition, the high incidence of hyperdiploid and tetraploid chromosomes was charactaristic of herpes zoster. 3) Two unique chromosomal aberrations were found in several patients with herpes zoster. One abnormality was A2 monosomy with a large acrocentric chromosome the size of A2 chromosome (A2 marker chromosome), another was secondary constriction on A3 or Group C chromosome. The observation of chromosome aberrations in the patients infected with varicella-zoster virrus indicates that this virus in vivo is also able to cause various chromosomal changes.
Electron microscopic study on squamous cell carcinoma in burn scar revealed followings, concerning the granular cells in cancer nests. They were mostly large in size, and irregular in shape and arrangement. Their nuclei were commonly flattend in shape and often indented. Nucleolei were small in size, displaying indistinct nucleolonemata which suggests their being in the pycnotic process. Generally each of cytoplasmic organelles became sparse in accordance with the increase of tonofibrils, compared with cytoplasmic organelles of normal prickle cell layer. Free ribosomes showed the tendency to aggregate in variously sized groups. Some of them were intimately associated with keratohyalin granules. Intercellular spaces were indistinct in most places and desmosomes embedded in tonofibrils and seemingly located in the cytoplasm were often recognized. Sometimes, round structures which contained desmosomes or intermediate junction-like structures as their constituent and therefore seemed to be derived from the latter were recognized in the cytoplasm of some cancer cells.