In this study, the cytological findings of the borderline lesions of the uterine cervix were observed Cellular specim ens taken from 4 cases of norma cervix, 5 cases of chronic inflammation, 5 cases of dysplasia, 5 cases of carcinoma in-situ, and 6 cases of carcinoma epidermoid, which cases were proved histologically, were examined. These specimens were obtained by means of cotton swab from portio vaginalis and fixed in ether and 95 per cent ethyl alcohol solution and stained by the Papanicolaou method. All squamous cells on the smear were observed on the cell diameter, cy toplasmic staining reaction, nuclear border findings, nuclear cytoplasmic ratio and chromatin pattern. Results, 1) Different cellular combination were showed on each preparation from normal cervix, chronic inflammation, dysplasia, carcinoma in-situ and carcinoma epidermoid. 2) The smear in cases of carcinoma showed various chromatin types such as“finely reticular or glan ular, ” “grossly reticular”, “coasely glanular” and “opaque”. 3) As a result of observation on the physiological maturation and serious experimental observation on normal squamous cells, chromatin type such as “grossly reticular” and “coasely glanular” and “opaque” may be due to degeneration. Cancerous tissue may be composed of various cells which have numerous chromatin figures in maturation and serious degeneration.
From April 1964 to May 1967, the cytologic examination of urine and washing specimens of the bladder with saline solution of α-chymotrypsin of 261 patients in the National Cancer Center Hospital was made. All materials was processed according to the methods of May-Giemsa (Pappenheim) and of Papanicolaou after centrifugation. 1. In 261 cases, 88 were surely proved to be the cases of carcinoma of the urinary tract histologic ally and clinically; in these 88 cases, 21 were ex amined only after some treatments. The remaining 67 cases include 6 carcinomas of the kidney, 55 ca ncers of the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and uret hra, and 4 carcinomas of the prostate. 2. The accuracy of cytodiagnosis of the 67 cases with the cancer of urinary tract was 68. 7 per cent and of the 49 cases of bladder was 77. 6 per cent. 3. The stickiness of cells to the glass slide is one of the most important factors for the accuracy of the cytologic diagnosis of urinary tract. The meth ods of the fixation after drying for the May-Gie-msa and of the spray fixation with mixture of polyethylene-glycol and isopropyl alcohol for the Papanicolaou are very efficient for the accurate diagnosis. 4. The accurate diagnosis of the carcinoma of bladder was also increased by using washings of the bladder and urine specimens. 5. The relationship of the histological grade (Ash, Ackerman) and the cytologic features was studied in 17 cases of the transitional cell rcarcin oma of bladder.
For the purpose of automatic screening of cytological smears, a new autoscanner was developed in the Center for Adult Diseases, Osaka. This apparatus of a light microscope, a TV camera as detector and a computer system. Light microscopic findings(size and density) of nuclei stained by Feulgen's reaction were transformed to video signal by means of TV camera. The amplitude and depth of video signal are calibrated by a computer. The thresholds of the amplitude and depth of video signal are previously determined by observing nuclei of malignant and non-malignant cells light micros scopically. When the information of a nucleus is over the thresholds, a signal lamp gives red sign as malignant. Up to now, vaginal smears of 160 cases were examined. All cases of uterine cancer were proved positive by this apparatus. However, a few false positive cases were experienced due to many clump ings of polymorphnuclear leucocytes in the smears. Now we are planning to improve this apparatus eliminating this disadvantage, and to develop ano ther autoscanner for mass-screening of gastric and lung cancers.