The evolutionary process in which diverse nasal organs of the vertebrates have developed and come into existence is surveyed from the view-point of paleontology and comparative anatomy. The nasal organ first appeared as a single common opening of the olfactory apparatus and hypophysis (naso-hypophysial opening) in the Paleozoic ostracoderms. During the course of fifish evolution, it developed and settled into paried nasal pits furnished with anterior and posterior nares. In the stage of transition from a certain advanced line of the bony fish to the first amphibians, the nasal pit became the meatus for air breathing by the perforation of a third naris (choana) at the bottom of each nasal pit. Thus the olfaction was made more effective, and the basis of vertebrate adaptation to life on the land was established. In a stage of reptilian evolution Jacobson's organ as an accessory olfactory apparatus was developed, and the nasal meatus became more complete with partial formation of the nasal conchae and secondary palate. Finally, on the transition from mammal-like reptiles to mammals in the Mesozoic period, the nasal cavity was separated from the oral cavity through the completion of the secondary palate, with a result that the efficiency of air breathing, feeding, and vacalization has been increased. In mammals the nasal conchae and paranasal sinuses are also highly developed. In spite of the extensive knowledge on the nasal organs of extinct and living vertebrates, there are many questions left unsolved, such as the actual origin of the internal naris and the function of the paranasal sinuses. The whole aspect of the vertebrate nasal organs will not be obtained until these problems have been elucidated.
The clinical therapeutic effect of MS-Antigen to allergic rhinitis was tested by the controlled sequential study of Armitage through double blind trials. The MS-Antigen was discovered by Soeda in 1965 as a remedy for allergic diseases, and has been hitherto reported as very effective by many investigators. Its main component is a sort of polypeptide weighing about 1, 600 number average molecular weight, extracted from the urine of the patients suffering from allergic diseases. But the strict appraisal of its therapeutic effectiveness by the double blind trial has not yet performed. From these standpoints, the following clinical experiments were carried out, some allergic rhinitis patients were selected as the candidates, and for patients over 15 years old 2 ampoules of MS-Antigen or Placebo (One ampoule contained 20 mg proper material or corresponding physiologic saline as Placebo), and for under 15 years old 1 ampoule were injected every day for 4 weeks subcutaneously. During those periods, many necessary clinical investigations were performed for the test. After all, 27 pairs i. e. 54 patients were tested in all. But under the design of 2α=0.05, 1-β=0.95, θ=95 following the Armitage's sequential trial, it was domonstrated the preference of MS-Antigen to Placebo by 12 pairs of the patients. The rate of effectiveness of the proper material and Placebo were 88% and 33% respectively globally judged from many data of investigation concerning the total test cases, and the difference of these rates proved a sufficient significance under the condition of P<0.001 through the statistical x2 test. The rates of improvement of subjective and objective symptoms were parallel to the above data. Its malignant side effects were not at all recognized.
Frontal pyocele or mucocele induced by trauma to the frontal sinus area usually develop several years following the incident. The authors reported three cases of frontal pyocele or mucocele developed 3 to 20 years after trauma to the frontal sinus area and a case of mucocele developed one month after trauma to the radix of nose, which was found incidentally at his visit to the hospital seeking plastic surgery of the external nose. The authors stated that thorough rhinological examination for possible frontal mucocele or pyocele could not be spared in cases with a history of trauma to the frontal area.