In order to examine the immunological characteristics of tonsillar (t) lymphocytes, plaque forming cell (PFC) of t lymphocytes was assayed in comparison with that of peripheral (p) blood lymphocytes from the same donor. Each t or p lymphocytes of 12 patients with chronic tonsillitis or tonsillar hypertrophy were first separated by Ficoll-Isopaque method. Further fractionation to T and B cells in both t and p lymphocytes (Tt or Bt and Tp or Bp) was done by the usual procedure using sheep red blood cell (SRBC) rosette formation. These lymphocytes were reconsituted with variuos combination between (Bt, Bp) and (Tt, Tp) and, followed by a culture for 7 days with Pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Antibody producing cells detectable by PFC assay of Gronowicz' method were then assayed in the culture cells. Results obtained are summarized as follows. The maximum numbers of PFC were observed in a culture with 10μg/ml concentration of PWM and 2-mercaptoethanol (5×10-5 M) after 7 days at 37°C, showing the optimal condition for the assay. Population of B cells in t lymphocytes clearly showed much more dominant percentages than that of T cells. This pattern of T and B cell proportion completely differed from the one usualy observed in a population of p lymphocytes. Reconstituted culture of t lymphocytes (Tt+Bt) always gave higher values in IgG and IgM-PFC assay than that of p lymphocytes (Tp+Bp) with a ratio of 100: 18, 100: 11. This means that t lymphocytes generally have an higher activity of antibody production, though its activity occasionally shows individually positive in the case of t lynphocytes, whereas no PFC was seen in a few cases of p lymphocytes. In addition, background numbers of PFC in reconstituted culture of t lymphocytes without an addition of PWM showed much more values than those of p lymphocytes. Tonsillar T cells (Tt) obviously indicated higher activity of helper function for B cells differentiation than that of peripheral blood T cells (Tp). The similar higher function for T cell dependent differentiation of B cells was also found in tonsillar B cells (Bt), when compared with that in peripheral blood B cells (Bp). From the above results, the author discussed the characteristic roles of tonsil which may contribute to immunological defense mechanisms as the first barrier against various exogeneous antigens.
The test for optokinetic nystagmus in the examination of vestibular function plays an important role in diagnosis of diseases of the peripheral vestibule and central nervous system. Many cases of cerebral apoplexy show abnormality in optokinetic nystagmus, but studies dealing with a chronological change in optokinetic nystagmus are scanty. In this study we made observations on the degree of chronological changes in OKP in 50 cases of cerebral apoplexy with hemiplegia. Methods for evaluating the results of OKP test are mostly qualitative and few use the quantitative expression. It was therefore difficult to express and compare the clinical course in patients with abnormal OKP. In our study, chronological changes in OKP were at first evaluated in 5 grades by four judges. The four judges agreed in evaluation in extreme changes but disagreed in the shifting type in many cases. Then we attempted to work out a pattern which serves as a criterion for evaluation of OKP, to compare it with OKP of the patient and to express the extent of OKP abnormality in the numerical figure. Fifty OKP showing various patterns were selected from patients with cerebral apoplexy reported in the past several years in order to make standardized OKP which serves as a criterion. On the basis of this criterion, OKP was divided into three groups: Group I which shows a normal or near normal pattern, Group II which shows a slightly abnormal pattern, Group III which shows a definitely abnormal pattern. Furthermore, the group was subdivided into a, b and c. Using such a criterion, we examined chronological changes in OKP in 50 cases of cerebral apoplexy mentioned earlier. As a result, OKP in patients with cerebral apoplexy remained almost unchanged even in reexamination after the lapse of time. The changes were mostly those within the same group. Few cases showed changes from one group to another.
The incidence of severe sinusitis in Japan has decreased with improvement in the living conditions and development of drugs in recent years. On the other hand, cases of postoperative maxillary sinus cyst are on the increase. We attempted to prevent the contraction and closure of the nasoantral window using an artificial collagen film which has attracted attention in recent years. As usual, the maxillary sinus was opened to make an nasoantral window, into which an artificial film was inserted. This artificial collagen film comes off spontaneously in 2 to 3 weeks. In cases treated with the artificial collagen film, epithelization around the nasoantral window was accelerated and cure was attained promptly; 11 out of 12 cases showed satisfactory clinical Ichiro, Motokawa course; In cases not treated with the artificial collagen film, there was hyperplasia of pathologic granulation due to infections, etc.; eight out of 13 cases showed satisfactory clinical course but five had contraction or closure of the nasoantral window. We embedded an artificial collagen film into the fascia of the thigh muscle in mature rabbits and studied the relationship between the film and the surrounding tissue. Macroscopically, it looked like a white plate up to the 4th month, became cicatricial thereafter and was absorbed at the 6th month. Histologically, infiltration of giant cells against foreign body and lymphocytes was hardly observed; the artificial collagen film became swollen and split to be absorbed after the 4th month. Reactions or side-effects of the artificial collagen film was not observed during that period. The artificial collagen film inhibits hyperplasia of granulation, accelerates epithelization and leads to a cure rapidly without foreign body reaction. This prevents the contraction and closure of the nasoantral window shortly after operation, facilitates outflow of the exudate in the maxillary sinus and results in a higher rate of cure of sinusitis. The nasoantral window retained by this procedure could possibly prevent postoperative maxillary sinus cysts arising from formation of the obstructed cavity.