Spontaneous and induced nystagmus elapsed-time tests were carried out with a nystagmograph and followed by pathohistological evaluation of the inner ear. Test Results: 1. In all groups of rabbits, spontaneous nystagmus was not demonstrated in both light and dark areas. 2. In the group not subjected to stress, the number of oscillations per eye in pendular nystagmus (PR) was not the same but the difference was within 10%, while in optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) this difference was greater but still within 12.2%. 3. In the group subjected to chronic emotional stimulation, the difference between the right and left eyes was a maximum of 24.6%, while in OKN the difference was a maximum of 73.0%. Only one case showed a low frequency of nystagmus. 4. In the group subjected to acute emotional stimulation, the difference in PR was 20.6% and in OKN 76.9%. Nystagmus appeared gradually following stimulation. 5. In the group of rabbits placed under restraint, all animals showed an increased difference between right and left eyes in PR, or 69.6%, and a difference of 82.6% in OKN. Here, nystagmus was slow to appear following stimulation in some cases. 6. In some of the animals in the groups subjected to chronic and acute emotional stimulation, pathohistological examination of the inner ear revealed unaccountable aural vertigo centering on Meniere's syndrome. There have been many theories advanced as the etiology of nystagmus. These have included one quite recently that such psychosomatic factors as the complexity of modern social structure and life exert a great influence. Where fundamental studies are concerned, a few experiments dealing with stress alone have been carried out, but none regarding the effect on vestibule of the ear and optokinetic function. For this reason, rabbits were subjected to various emotional stimulation and the various changes in spontaneous and induced nystagmus were observed, together with pathohistological evaluation. In order to carry out these experiments, a stress box was constructed in which animals could be subjected to electrical, light and sound stimulation and also to restraint. The experiments were classified into chronic and acute tests, on the basis of the strength and duration of the emotional stimulation, and the test where restraint alone was used. In other words, the rabbits were divided into four distinct groups: that where no stress was exerted, the chronic emotional stimulation group, the acute emotional stimulation group, and the restraint group. Some rabbits gave evidence of hemorrhage resulting from electrical stimulation, while all rabbits in the groups subjected to stress displayed changes in their adrenal glands. Rabbits in the groups subjected to emotional stimulation gave evidence of effects on the optokinetic functions and vestibule of the ear. The difference in oscillation rates between left and right eyes in cases of PR and OKN tended to increase with the increase in stimulation. Where spontaneous nystagmus did not appear, it was thought that a condition preparatory to the appearance of vertigo existed.
A successful treatment of malignant lesions depends largely upon its early diagnosis and early treatment. The authors report two cases of precancerous lesion, one occured in the tongue and the other at the larynx, both of them turned out to be malignant during the course of the treatments. Both of the cases have been treated successfully by irradiation. It is often said that the cancer of the tongue may be induced by decubitic ulcer, irritations from dental caries, denture or metal crawn, smoking, drinking, leukoplakia and syphilis while cancer of the larynx may be induced by drinking, smoking, air pollution and hormonal imbalance. The authors reviewed the literature and discussed etiology and pathogenesis of these precancerous lesions.
The authors report a case of Wallenberg's syndrome that showed a typical syndrome: hoarseness, paresthesia and dysphagia. The patient is a 42-year-old male, a school teacher, who noted the above three symptoms one morning and visited the hospital on the same day. Laryngological examination revealed redness and moderate swelling of the right false cord and arythenoid region. The right vocal cord was fixed in the mid-position. The patient could not swallow even water. Heat and pain sensations were abscent in the left side of the trunk and extremities, furthermore, there was a dissociation of sensation in the extremities. The cranial nerve involvements included a complete paralysis of the 9th and 10th together with imcomplete paralysis of the 5th and 7th nerves. The patient has been treated medically under hospitalization and his symptoms improved markedly except the dissociation of the sensation
The authors report cases of familial perceptive deafness resulted from a typical euchromosomal dominant heredity. The cases in whom hypocusis occured at a younger age showed more servere losses when they reached adult age. The audiograms were symmetrical in each case but the curves were not analogus each other
The authors report a rare case of tracheopathia osteochondroplastica. The patient had been treated at a near-by clinic for the past ten years under a dignosis of bronchoectasis. The patient has been referred to otolaryngology after he developed a bloody sputum and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopic examination revealed unusal findings at the anterior wall of the trachea. The dignosis has been confirmed as tracheopathia osteochondroplastica based on the results of endoscopic examination, soft tissue technique x-rays and pathological examinations. The authors reviewed the literature and discuss general manifestation of the disease.