It is often pointed out that the incidence of sarcoidosis in Japan is on the increase, while the etiology of the disease still remains unknown. This disease mainly involves the lungs, eyes, lymphnodes, skin, nervous system and bones, but it also involves various tissues and strucures in the field of otolaryngology, which include the external nose, nasal mucosa, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, pharynx and larynx, trachea and bronchi, tonsils and adenoid, salivary gland, external and middle ear, acoustic and facial nerves. Otolaryngologists, accordingly, should be aware of this systemic disease for an early diagnosis. The authors report on the otolaryngological manifestations of sarcoidosis in 15 cases that have been treated at St. Luke's International Hospital during the past 10 years and discuss contribution of otolaryngologists in the diagnosis of this disease.
The measurements of pulmonary mechanics were made on twenty unselected cases with varying degrees of nasal obstruction during both nasal and oral breathing. Values for transnasal pressure and resisitance in various parts of the respiratory system were calculated from Rohrer's equation. At a flow rate of 0.5l/sec, nasal resistance was greater during inspiration, while the resistances between nose and pleural surface and between mouth and pleural surface were increased during expiration. The resistance of the conducting airways below the pharynx is obtained as the total less the nasal resistance. A correlation between changes of the transnasal pressure and the resistance below the pharynx was detected. Whenever the transnasal pressure changed, the resistance of the lower part of the respiratory system including the larynx also changed and most frequently in the same direction. In addition, these changes are observed during mouth breathing as well as nose breathing, and are in direct relation to the degree of transnasal pressure.However, the site of increased lower airway resistance is not known.
A man aged 53 years visited our clinic with a swelling of the hard palate. Brownish liquid was obtained by an exploratory puncture and 30% Lipiodol was injected. X-ray examination demonstrated a cyst of the right maxilla. Follicular cyst or radicular cyst was suspected. The cyst was completely extirpated through an incision of the hard palate. Pathological findings were compatible with nasopalatine cyst. The cyst wall is lined with both stratified squamous epithelium and ciliated epithelium. Cysts occurring in the maxillary region are as follows; I. Non-odontogenous cyst 1. Postoperative maxillary cyst 2. Mucous gland cyst of the maxilla 3. Maxillary sinus cyst 4. Naso-alveolar cyst 5. Globulo-maxillary cyst 6. Nasopalatine cyst II. Odontogenous cyst 1. Radicular cyst 2. Follicular cyst 3. Mayrhofer's cyst 4. Broca's cyst 5. Paradental cyst 6. Adamantinoma