The effect of exposure to ozone (O3) on histamine release in lung and nose was investigated in BALB/C mice, W/Wv mice and +/+ mice. BALB/C mice were continuously exposed to 0.8ppm O3 for 3 hours, 1 day, 3 days or 7 days. W/Wv mice and +/+ mice were continuously exposed to 0.8ppm O3 for 7 days. In BALB/C mice, the increase in weight of the lung was observed in 1 day, 3 days and 7 days exposure to ozone, but no significant change was observed in histamine contents of the lung through all exposure periods. In +/+ mice which has mast cells, the increased weight of lung were observed, though no significant change was observed in W/Wv mice which defects mast cell. These results suggest that O3 exposure has the effect on histamine release which causes the increased weights of lung, though there is no decrease of histamine contents.
The treatment of three cases of dysphagic patients who were tracheostomized is reported and the efficacy of tracheal T-tube for dysphagic patients with tracheostomy is insisted on. Tracheostomy is required to remove sputum in the trachea in severe dysphagic patients. In some of these patients decannulation is difficult because a vicious circle develops. In order to spit out what was aspirated and phlegm a tracheostomy is required. Improvement of dysphagia is disturbed because tracheostomy is a negative factor for dysphagia. The tracheal stoma was not closed without the improvment of dysphagia. It is important to cut this vicious circle in order to improve the dysphagia. The tracheal T-tube with speech valve was inserted on a tracheal cannula and the patients were taught to spit out sputun, not to swallow saliva and to spit out orally what was aspirated and phlegm. After stoma was closed, rehabilitation training or operation such as infrahyoid myotomy and cricopharyngeal myotomy was performed. The three severe dysphagi patints with tracheostomy succeeded in oral intake of foods and water without laryngectomy by this method.
Three cases of laryngeal tuberculosis that were experienced in the Department of Otolaryngology, Syuto General Hospital, are reported. Although it has been said that laryngeal tuberculosis decreased recently in number, they were still reported sometimes, and a case per 2-3 years had visited our out-patient clinic. We did not think that laryngeal tuberculosis was a very rare case. All three cases had suffered from lung tuberculosis, but they all had been examined regulary, and they had thought that it had already been cured. But laryngeal tuberculosis had recurred due to intraductal infection. As it is necessary to make differential diagnosis of laryngeal tuberculosis from carcinoma, histopathological examination is important.
To know the character of pollinosis in childhood, two comparative studies were performed. One is a study on the difference bewteen 42 pollinosis-children aged under 15 years and the first control group consisting of the adult patients with pollinosis, and the other study is concerned with the difference of clinical pictures between the above mentioned pollinosis-children and the second control group consisting of the children with perennial nasal allergy. From these studies, the following results were obtained: 1) Sexual ratio in the children was respectively 2.5: 1 in the pollinosis and 3: 1 in the perennial nasal allergy, which was significantly differed from that of the adult patients (P<0.001). 2) The case accompanied by perennial nasal allergy was found in 60% of the pollinosis children, which was significantly higher than 30% of the adult patients (P<0.01). 3) As a rule, the severity of children's nasal symptoms was less than that of the adult patients (P<0.001). 4) Itchy eyes was noticed more frequently in the pollinosis children as compared with the children of perennial nasal allergy (P<0.05). 5) There was the tendency that the initiatory age of suffering from pollinosis was elder that of the perennial nasal allergy. 6) As to the variety of sensitizer (pollen) and the rate sensitized by double antigens, no difference between the children and the adults was found. 7) The difference of family and past history concerned in “atopy” were not found between the pollinosis children and the children of perennial nasal allergy.
We operated on 29 parotid tumors of different etiology during the past 19 months. Of the 29 cases, 24 were benign tumors, 5 were malignant tumors. There was one case that pleomorphic adenoma with pre-operative facial nerve paralysis. Postoperative facial nerve paralysis was seen in 7 patiants. In 5 cases were imcomplete paralysis and repaired within one month.
Methods and findings of target image CT of olfactory clefts and ethmoid cells of the patients suffered from olfactory disturbance were presented with clinical cases, and the importance of target image CT was discussed. Scannings were made bidirectionary, coronary view and axial view. Five cases with olfactory disturbance such as parosmia, cacosmia, hyposnia caused by commoncold and anosmia caused by chronic sinusitis were presented. Anatomy of ethomoid cells and olfactory clefts was very complicated and mechanisms of olfactory disturbance have not been completely proved, therefore better resolution of target image CT than the conventional methods and observations from two directions could provide more precise and three dimentional information. This examination was very useful for the diagnosis of the place and the degree of the pathological change causing olfactory disturbance. Furthermore, when the endonasal surgery was applied to the treatment of the disease, the evaluation of the local anatomy by CT was very important.
Transmeatal atticotomy can be very useful in surgical treatment of immobilized head of malleus. After removal of the lateral bony wall of the attic, the anterior malleal ligament and the chorda tympani are elevated. Then the anterior tympanic spine is removed. This procedure will free the immobilized head of the malleus. For closure of the attic, a tympanic membrane is grafted first, then the lateral wall is constructed by a piece of cartilage. The cartilage will hold the grafted membrane in place, which would help the membrane to work efficiently.
Treatment of large laryngeal lesions with laryngomicrosurgical technique by use of a snare is introduced. It is thought that an excessive removal of the mucous membrane and much bleeding can be avoided by use of a snare. The method was demonstrated with two case presentations and discussed from the viewpoint of the flexibility of the vocal fold mucous membrane and surgical manipulations which may influence on postoprative results.