In the growth of the paranasal sinuses various differences are noted with age. Moreover, great individual differences are also seen, with variations in the rate and mode of growth for each sinus. In addition, similar effect appears in the growth of the paranasal sinus as that of remarkable improvement in the constitution of Japanese. In view of these facts, the growth process of each paranasal sinus was studied in a total of 3, 490 outpatients by measuring the following five parameters using tomography of the paranasal sinuses. Skull width: The straight distance between the left and right front temporals in the skull, which corresponds to the minimum frontal width. Ethmoid width: The distance connecting the upper and lower midpoints of the lamina papyracea. Maxilla width: The distance connecting the outermost points of the right and left maxillary sinuses. Nasal cavity width: The broadest width of the lateral wall of the lower meatus nasi. Nasal cavity height: The distance on the nasal cavity midline from the level of the tectorium to the base of the cavity. (From our study, it was shown that increase in this distance is in parallel with that in body-height). The mean skull width was 9.72 cm at the age of four years and then it showed gradual increasecontinu ously until the age of 17 years. The most remarkable growth was observed during the period from 4 to 11 years of age, with an annual 0/00 of 11.9. The mean value obtained for the ethmoid width was 2.41 cm at the age of 4 years, followed by continuous gradual increase up to 3.50 cm. The highest growth rate was recorded for the age period from 4 to 9 years with an annual 0/00 of 47.4, followed by the age period from 9 to 14 years with an annual 0/00 of 30.6. Little or no growth was seen in subjects older than 15 years. When compared to the nasal cavity height, a significant difference was seen in the growth of the ethmoid width at the age period from 8 to 10 years, indicating that is the period with the most remarkable growth. It was found that in females the growth of the ethmoid width almost completes before reaching the age of 12 years, while in males the growth continues until the age of 15 years. The mean maxilla width was 7.29 cm at the age of four years, with the growth continued until the age of 17 years. Especially remarkable growth was noted for the age period of 4 to7 years, the annual 0/00 being 46.7. Then the annual 0/00 for the period of 7 to 13 years of age decreased to 28.3, while it showed further slight reduction to 13.0 for the age period of 13 to 17 years. When compared to the nasal cavity height, significant difference was seen in the growth rate for the maxilla width for the age period of 5 to 11 years. Regarding the sex related difference, the growth continues until the age of 17 years in males, while it almost complete until the age of 13 years. The mean nasal cavity width at the age of 4 years was 2.91 cm, which continued to increase up to the width of 3.73 cm at the age of 17 years. The annual 0/00 during the age period from 4 to 17 years was 21.7. The nasal cavity height whose mean value was 3.93 cm at the age of 4 years increased to 5.44 cm at the age of 16 years. Remarkable growth was recorded for the age period of 4 to 13 years with an annual 0/00 of 38.2. In the growth ratio of the nasal cavity height between males and females, age related difference was seen. In males the highest growth rate was recorded for the age period of 9 to 14 years, while in females the growth continues until the age of 16 years with the highest growth rate for the age period from 4 to 9 years. The growth almost stops at the age of 14 years. As described above, the growth of the nasal cavity was studied using as an indicator means of the observed values for various age periods
The potential that is produced by an odorous stimulation to the olfactory epithelium has been called the Electro-olfactogram (EOG), and analyzed mainly using a frog. Now, it was tried to measure the EOG with a rabbit which was a higher vertebrate and had a keen sense of smell, and the fundamental problems were studied. As for the measurement of the EOG in man, the examination with Olympus Selfoscope SES-1711D was deviced. It has been proposed that Selfoscope is useful for the endoscopic examination of the olfactory portion, so that, we recorded the potential while observing the olfactory portion directly with Selfoscope. Results were as follows: 1. The EOG in a rabbit 1) The nasal bone was removed and the olfactory region was exposed under anesthetic condition by Nembutal in the normal rabbit. The electrode was placed on the first endoturbinate where the olfactory epithelium existed anatomically, and the odorous stimulation was given. Consequently, a slow negative potential with a latency of 100-200 msec and a peak of 100--300 msec after the end of the stimulation and an amplitude of several or ten-odd mV was obtained. This response belonged to the negative-on-type. 2) When the sort of odor was changed in A5 (β-phenyl ethyl alcohol 10.5 dilution solution), C5 (Iso-valeric acid 10.8), E5 (Scatol 101.1), the amplitude of the EOG was significantly large in A5 and E5 compared with C5. When the stimulation time was changed in the range of 250-2, 500 msec, the amplitude grew large by degrees as far as 1, 500 msec. When the flow volume was changed in the range of 3-5 l/min, too, the amplitude had a tendency to increase. 3) When the electrode was placed on the portion where the olfactory epithelium did not exist anatomically, the EOG was not obtanied. Because the EOG was obtained after the application of 1.0% xylocaine to the olfactory epithelium, too, xylocaine did not have influence on the EOG as a Generator potential. After 5% ZnSO4 solution was applied to the olfactory epithelium, the EOG disappeared. Histologically, the degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was detected, therefore, it was presumed that tne EOG originated in the olfactory epithelium. 2. Clinical application of the EOG 1) The electrode and the stimulation tube were in one body, and it was connected with Selfoscope. The examination that executed the setting of the electrode and the odorous stimulation while observing the olfactory portion with Selfoscope was superior to the conventional one. 2) In persons with normal olfaction, the slow negative potentials similar to those in rabbits were obtained in about 68%. Although they were in anosmia with local anesthesia of the rima olfactoria, the EOG did not disappear. Therefore, the EOG was not influenced by the xylocaine treatment before the examination. 3) In persons with peripheral dysosmia, the EOGs were obtained in about 26%. But, in proportion to the increase of the degree of dysosmia, the rate of appearance declined, and the EOG was not obtained in anosmia. Therefore, the EOG could reflect the function of the olfactory epithelium. 4) In persons with central dysosmia, theEOGs were obtained in about 69%, and in spite of the anosmia, mostly the EOGs were obtained. 5) It was suggested that this investigation could be applied as one of the useful objective examinations of differential diagnosis in olfactory disturbances.