日向夏飲料の微生物学的安全性確保のために, 原材料製造工程における日向夏搾汁について, 各種細菌芽胞の汚染度を調べた. 計11試料において, 好気培養では51菌株, 嫌気培養では12菌株を分離し, TABについては検出されなかった. また, 分離した菌株のうち, Paenibacillus属細菌を最も多く検出し, その他Bacillus属, Paraclostridium属, Clostridium属細菌を得た, これより, これら細菌種が日向夏100％ジュース (pH3.1) 中で発育できないため, 殺菌指標菌として管理する必要はないことがわかった. 今回の実験では検出できなかったTABだが, 過去の変敗事例や本菌種の諸性質を考慮すると, 殺菌指標菌として検討する必要がある. そのため, 今後はTABによる日向夏100%ジュース中での発育試験を行い, 発育する場合は, 加熱殺菌指標菌として適切な加熱殺菌条件を設定して管理すべきと考える. また, さまざまな野菜汁や果汁を混ぜるミックスジュースでは, pHによってはPaenibacillus属が発育する可能性があるので注意が必要である.
Soybeans are rich in proteins and lipids and are often called “meat of the field.” Green soybeans, which are immature soybeans, are also highly nutritious and contain high levels of carotene and vitamin C. In Japan, green soybeans used to be harvested and consumed from May to November; however, with the development of freezing and storage technologies, they are now available throughout the year. Globally, there has been an increase in the consumption of the green soybean food, edamame, which originated in Japan, along with tofu and soy sauce. Currently, there are more than 400 unique green soybean varieties in Japan; nonetheless, studies investigating the components that determine green soybean palatability at the genetic level are scarce. During the Soybean Research Session of the 69th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology in 2022, the results and future prospects of the present study were presented by Dr. Tomoki Hoshino from Laboratory of Crop Breeding, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Yamagata University, who is currently developing new varieties of green soybean cultivars by analyzing the genes that determine consumer palatability.
Dadachamame is the common name for edamame soybean [Glycine max L.(Merr.)] cultivars, ‘Shirayama’, ‘Kanro’ and ‘Oura’, which have been established in Tsuruoka city, Yamagata prefecture in northern Japan since the late Edo era. Dadachamame has a good taste and special aroma. Although it is known that the good taste of Dadachamame is caused by the higher levels of sucrose and free amino acids based on the comparative analysis of chemical components in the seeds of Dadachamame and other soybean cultivars, details on the genetic level are unclear. To understand the good taste of Dadachamame on the genetic level, in this study, we developed an F2 population derived from a cross between the Dadachamame cultivar ‘Shirayama’ and the soybean cultivar ‘Enrei’. In the early development stage, Shirayama seeds had about 2-fold higher accumulation levels of sucrose compared with Enrei seeds. Sucrose content and genotype of the F2 population suggested that the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for high sucrose accumulation is located on the long arm of chromosome 12. The genes responsible for determining the sweetness of Shirayama may be present on chromosome 12. Using the lines developed from crosses between Dadachamame and soybean cultivars in future studies, we will attempt to identify the genes responsible for QTL that control for the good taste in specific Dadachamame seeds, and discuss the mechanisms for determining the good taste of Dadachamame to improve the palatability of edamame. Furthermore, we have developed mutant edamame populations that can be used for edamame breeding. Since mutant soybean populations have already been developed, meticulous soybean breeding will be possible in the future for creating the desired characteristics for the final soybean products.
At the “Small Research-Discussion on Cereal Grains” in the annual meeting of the Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology in 2022, Dr. Fumi Hayashi (associate professor of the Faculty of Nutrition, Kagawa Nutrition University) gave a lecture entitled “Eating a combination of grain dishes, fish and meat dishes, and vegetable dishes: The basic principle of sustainable healthy diets.” The lecture content suggested that 1) a well-balanced diet that follows the Dietary Balance Guide reduces mortality, 2) prolonged restriction of grain intake can have adverse effects on health, 3) consuming low-refined cereal can make diets healthier, and 4) choosing plant-based foods can promote healthy diets with low environmental impact.
According to the guiding principles of the FAO/WHO, sustainable healthy diets are dietary patterns that promote all dimensions of individuals’ health and wellbeing; have low environmental pressure and impact; are accessible, affordable, safe, and equitable; and are culturally acceptable. The goal of a sustainable healthy diet is to prevent all forms of malnutrition (undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, overweight, and obesity) and to reduce the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases, while protecting biodiversity and global environmental health. In this paper, we propose a diet based on "grain dishes, fish and meat dishes, and vegetable dishes" as the basic composition of a dietary pattern that is easily adaptable to people's lifestyles, provides the nutrients necessary to maintain proper health and nutrition, has a low environmental impact, and is sustainable even during the COVID-19 pandemic.
我が国は世界有数の超高齢社会であり, 2040年には高齢化率が40 ％を超えると予想されている. 今後も高齢化の進展により要介護の主要因である虚弱 (フレイル) の増加が懸念されている. タマゴは安価かつ豊富な栄養素を含むため, 健康食品として注目が高まっている. タマゴは良質なタンパク源であることから, フレイル予防に資するはずであるが, 日常的タマゴ摂取量とフレイル予防との関係はほとんど報告がない. 著者は, 島根県内の高齢者コホート (島根大学コホート研究) に参画し, 隠岐の島町を中心に, 生活習慣とフレイルなどの関係を継続的に調査している. 本稿では, 我々のコホートの概要および現在までに示された各知見を概説し, そして著者らがこれまでに見出した, 日常的タマゴ摂取量とフレイルに関するデータを一部紹介する.
The taste sensor, based on an artificial lipid/polymer membrane, is the result of more than 30 years of collaborative research with University Professor Kiyoshi Toko of Kyushu University Institute for Advanced Study. Progress in taste sensors has been made thanks to the valuable feedback from professionals and researchers in the food and pharmaceutical industries who use taste sensors, and taste sensor data are now being used to develop new taste information businesses. The technological advances in taste evaluation and the growing demand for taste visualization are not only limited to food and pharmaceutical R&D, but are also being used as effective tools for a variety of businesses. In this report, we introduce the technological developments and business applications we have been working on with such taste sensor users in the food and pharmaceutical industries, as well as the issues that are currently being addressed by taste sensors.
本研究では, 熱力学物性に基づく新しい抽出モデルを開発することができた. このモデルは, Henry型の分配係数のほか, Langmuir式などの吸着等温式を許容することができるモデルであり, 理論予測が難しい物質移動係数や拡散係数などの速度論パラメータを介さない点で利便性が高いものである. また, ここで構築した数理モデルは, 超臨界CO2純溶媒に限らず, 均一相系の溶媒であれば液体抽出などにも応用できる. さらに, 食品などへの展開を想定すると, 複数溶質を含む場合のモデル上での取り扱いも必要になるが, 溶質間の相互作用が無視できる状態であれば, 溶質ごとに個別に計算することで多成分系にも展開できるものである. 今後, 熱力学基礎物性に基づく抽出挙動の完全予測が期待される.