Characterization of newly isolated baker’s yeast is important for its commercial use. Metabolome analysis of dough not only provides insight into the function of baker’s yeast in dough, but is also used to characterize baker’s yeast that is isolated from nature. The metabolic profile of dough generates information that contributes to optimal dough fermentation and is useful for improving the dough fermentation process. The control of metabolite production in dough leads to the production of high value-added bread. As baker’s yeast consumes γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during dough fermentation, baker’s yeast that does not assimilate GABA is useful for the production of GABA-rich bread.
The texture of softer cooked soybeans [Glycine max (L). Merr.] is preferable for soy products such as cooked beans (nimame), fermented steamed beans (natto), soy sauce, and fermented steamed bean paste (miso). We found a candidate gene, Glyma03g03360, associated with the hardness of cotyledons in cooked soybeans using a quantitative trait locus analysis of a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Japanese cultivars, “Natto-shoryu” and “Hyoukei-kuro 3”. Glyma03g03360 encodes a pectin methylesterase gene. Analysis of the DNA sequence revealed three mutation patterns, two of which result in truncated proteins and one of which results in an amino acid substitution. The truncated Glyma03g03360 proteins are presumed to lack enzymatic activity. Texture analysis of soybean cultivars with different Glyma03g03360 genotypes indicated that truncation of Glyma03g03360 resulted in softer cotyledons of cooked soybeans, which was further confirmed by texture analysis performed using F2 populations of crosses between “Enrei” and “LD00-3309”, and between “Satonohohoemi” and “Sakukei 98”. These results, and the relationship between calcium content and cotyledon hardness, support the idea that pectin methylesterase mainly affects the hardness of cooked soybean by controlling the degree of pectin methoxylation.
Soybeans exhibit excellent functionality as a food and are often a dietary component for the elderly. In the present study, we examined the effects of heating and enzyme treatment on soybean texture. Cooked soybeans were prepared either by boiling or in a pressure cooker, with or without enzyme treatment, and soybean weight and physical properties were determined. Palatability was assessed by sensory evaluation and mastication was evaluated by electromyography. The results demonstrated that soybeans treated with enzyme and prepared in a pressure cooker require less time to soften, easily aggregate, and become palatable. Here we discuss the relationship between the physical properties, palatability and mastication of cooked soybeans.
Recent meta-analysis and systematic reviews have suggested that the consumption of whole grain cereals might reduce some risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, namely diabetes and dyslipidemia. It has been scientifically proven that the insoluble dietary fiber arabinoxylan in wheat and the soluble dietary fiber β-glucan in barley might support the following physiological functions: 1) improvement of digestive function (normal stool frequency), 2) maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and 3) reduction of post-prandial glycemic responses. In our intervention studies in Japanese men and women, the consumption of whole grain wheat and high β-glucan barley reduced visceral fat area. This review presents recent information about the health functions of wheat and barley.