Red mold rice, fermented by the genus Monascus (Beni-koji), is used as a traditional foodstuff in Asian countries. Beni-koji is effective in decreasing blood pressure, reducing plasma cholesterol levels, and preserving food. The solid fermentation of colored rice or coix lacryma-jobi with Monascus pilosus was examined. Culture methods for increasing the production of functional constituents and the addition of new functions, anti-oxidant activity and learning behavior, were examined. Beni-koji produced with M. pilosus is considered to be a contribution to the development of foods with high functionality.