Some cases of blood diseases are accompanied by the bleeding tendency. One of the causes of bleeding is considered to be due to fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis is demonstrated in the patients blood of blood diseases, brain hemorrhage, nephritis, malignant tumor and allergic diseases and also in a certain condition of a normal individual. Fibrinolytic activity was measured by the use of Astrup's fibrin plate methd in patients received daily administration of ascorbic acid, and the following results were obtained. 1) Fibrinolytic activity was, as a rule, low in the blood of normal individuals. 2) The highest fibrinolytic activity were remarked in hemopathy. One case of chloroma showed strong fibrinolytic activity even in blood plasma. 3) When 100-400mg per day of ascorbic acid was administered, no inhibition was effected, while, when 500-1000mg per day was given continuously, inhibitory effect was seen on the seventh day. This effect was most significantly seen in nephropathy, while it was not marked in other diseases. 4) Activator in urine was of low value in any of the diseases, and was not changed even after administration of ascorbic acid. 5) Ascorbic acid produced no inhibitory effect on fibrinolysis in vitro. 6) Administration of 1000 mg per day of ascorbic acid produced ont only inhibition of fibrinolysis in blood and increase of fibrinogen, but also such clinically observed improvements as increase of urine and disappearance of urinary albumin in sone cases of nephritis. 7) The mechanism of inhibitory action of ascorbic acid on fibrinolysis is still obscure.
Osmotic phenomena of the frog skin in various solution of various concentration were observed. Materials were exclusively excised skins from Rana catesibiana. The weight of the skin decreased slightly in Ringer's solution. The Ringer solution was isotonic for the inside of the skin, but it was somewhat hypertonic for the outer side. The water in the skin flew out from the outer surface of the skin into the hypertonic environment. Similar phenomena was observed when the skin was immersed in isotonic NaCI solution. In the isotonic sucrose solution, exceeding decrease of the weight of skin appeared. But the weight recovered slightly and slowly. These facts show that the permeability of sucrose for the skin is lower than Na+ contained in the Ringer solution. The recovery of the weight is based on the diffusion of sucrose into the skin along its concentration gradient. In isotonic solution of KCl, the water in the skin flew out and the weight of the skin decreased at first, but gradually recovered its original value, and increased over the initial level. These mean that K+ is more permeable than sucrose, and it can penetrate more into the skin along its concentration gradient. If the osmotic pressure was raised by adding sucrose into the isotonic KCl solution, outflow of the water from the skin become obvious and then loss of water ceased in some degree, but the recovery of the weight is slow and skin weight can not exceed the normal value. This fact shows that sucrose acts as an inhibitor for the penetration of K+into the frog skin. In isotonic CaCl2solution, the initial decrease of the weight was not observed. The skin absorbed water immediately after the immersion into the isotonic CaCl2 solution. Of course, when the osmotic pressure raised by solving sucrose into isotonic CaCl2 solution, the decrease of the skin weight was observed. But such a decrease became gradually slight, and the weight turned to increase. From this fact, it can be concluded that Ca _??_ and sucrose accelerate each other to diffuse into the skin.
This report is based on the analytical study of on 33 patients with pre-operation, 84 patients with post-operation of gastric diseases and also 11 patients with pre-operation, 14 patients with post-operation of another diseases admitted to our department. First, the urine of all these patients were collected in the period of 24 hours. Excreated 5-HIAA value was determined according to the method of Udenf riend and Titus. Second, blood serotonin and histamine was also tested according to the method of Waalkes or Durner and Pernow. Namely, 27 post-operative patients were devided into three categories: beginning stage of symptom, as control, appeared stage and disappeared stage of symptom. The results obtained were as followed; 1) Excreated volume of 5-HIAA in the pre-operative patients, showed no significant value in the patients with gastric diseases. 2) During the post-operative treatment, decreased urine 5-HIAA volume was observed, following with high value was observed in 3 days after operation, and not recovered until 3 weeks. On the other hand, urine 5-HIAA was increased in 4 of these 5 cases with cancers of any sort. 3) 5-HIAA volume after operation of gastric diseases was shown in high response in order of non symptom group, indicated sign group and dumping group so on. 4) Compared between blood serotonin and histamine, the level of these amines was observed or indicated the three types as decreased type, increased type and constant type in the beginning stage of dumping syndrome. Therefore, it is postulated that the balance of patterns between blood serotonin and histamine may be significantly related to the causation or induction of dumping syndrome. 5) From the above points of view, the classification was accomplished throughout the relationship between blood serotonin and histamine which was attributed to the each symptoms with different patterns in dumping syndrome. 6) Dumper was classified or devided into several symptom goups from the type of pattern by mean of the determination of the blood serotonin and histamine levels. 7) The patients of dumping syndrome were attributed to the increased histamine rather than serotonin in the blood. 8) From the determination of blood serotonin as well as histamine and circulatory plasma volume just after the test meal, it was observed that blood histamine was increased and meantime blood serotonin was shown an downward trend in the case of decreased plasma volume. On the other hand, in the case of increased plasma volume blood serotonin was increased and histamine was decreased. However, it could not be applied to all explanation, since this case is only one. Finally, in the case of non change of plasma volume the both of serotonin and histamine were also unchanged. 9) The reason of the decreased plasma volume was explained by the test of histamine injection subcutaneously. 10) In the dumping syndrome, the difference of symptom in the same type of patterns may described by/or from the neurological element or factors. 11) For the purpose of prevention to the changes of blood amines level, Reserpine or Decadoron was administered to the dumper and effective results were obtained in all cases. Also, the changes of blood amine levels after the meal was not observed. These drugs may be effective to the treatment of dumping syndrome.
Neutrophile alkaline phosphatase (N-A. P.) activities in leukemia and the other diseases was studied histochemically. Upon comparison between Kaplow's method (phosphate ester of α-naphthol) and Naphthol AS-MX phosphate method, the latter was found to be better in the histochemical sensitivity, reproducibility, sharp localization and the easiness with which the positive granules were evaluated. Therefore the author used Naphthol AS-MX phosphate method in evaluating the chronological changes in leukemia and N-A. P. in various diseases. The following results were obtained : (1) Chronic myelogenous leukemia N-A. P. was extremely low except for 1 case with complication before treatment, so that the diagnostic significance was confirmed. The fluctuation of N-A. P. in response to treatment gave following responses. a) Cases in which normal values were obtained upon remission. b) Cases in which fluctuations in the subnormal level were seen despite remission. c) Case in which abnormally high values was seen due to bone marrow hypoplasia. d) Case in which a rapid elevation was seen due to acute exacerbation. The significance of fluctuation of N-A. P. was noted in each of the 4 groups. (2) Acute myelogenous leukemia Two types, one with high value and one with low value were distinguished. N-A. P. failed to fluctuate along with the course of the disease, unlike the changes in chronic myelogenous leukemia. In cases with a small number of leukocytes, the type of high value and the type of low value were distinguished. In cases with a large number of leukocytes, low values were encountered in one case. Upon comparison of the prognosis between two types, cases with high values had slightly longer period of survival. One case of low volue type complicated with infections rose to the normal level. (3) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia N-A. P. showed high values with scarcely any fluctuations according to the treatment. (4) In other diseases of blood, aplastic anemia, polycythemia rubra vera and leukemoid reaction revealed high values. No definite tendency was noted in iron-deficiency anemia. (5) Among various diseases, infections, diebetes mellitus, diseases of the liver, and malignant tumor showed high values. In diabetes mellitus, blood sugar values and N-A. P. showed a positive correlation while a negative correlation was noted between A/G ratio and N-A. P. in liver cirrhosis. In malignant tumor, this appeared to be of value as the auxilliary diagnostic method. Fluctuations of N-A. P. was thus studied in diseases of the blood especially leukemia as a center and other diseases and the clinical significance was studied.
This study was performed on 30 surgical patients, 9 to 70 years of age. Thiopental induction was followed by succinylcholine, then endotracheal intubation. Anesthesia was maintained with 0.5 % halothane in nitrous oxide-oxygen of 3: 1.51/min, until skin closure was effected. 10 mg/kg of CDP-choline (cytidine diphosphate choline) was administered intravenously about 10 minutes before skin closure. The criteria for recovery from anesthesia were the appearance of eyelash reflex and response to verbal stimuli. CDP-choline significantly prolonged recovery time from anesthesia, without relation to patient's age and sex, or duration of anesthesia.