As a part of the pharmacological studies on the embryonal stage, the authors investigated the changes in the chick embryo induced by the administration of Philopon employing fertilized hen's eggs to examine histologically the liver of the chick embryo. The results thus obtained were compared with those acquired in the past and came to the following conclusions. 1) As macroscopical findings, no eminent difference was noted in the initial stage of the incubation period when comared with the control. However, in the terminal stage, several grayish small specks were recognized in the parenchyma of the marginal portion of the liver in the cases when a highly concentrated philopon was injected. 2) As histological findings, since the initial stage of the incubation period, regressive degenerations such as granular degeneration, vacuolar degeneration, fat degeneration and necrotic or necrosis-like degeneration in the hepatic cells were recognized. In the terminal stage, round cells infiltrations in the Glisson's capsules were recognized. 3) The regressive degenerations observed in the liver of the chick embryo in the cases where a highly concentrated Philopon was injected indicated roughly the same tendency as that of the growth impediment in the terminal stage of the incubation.
Following their previous report, the authors investigated histologically the influences of the administration of Philopon exercised on the heart and kidney of the chick embryo. The results thus obtained were compared with those in the past and came to the following conclusions 1) As the findings in the heart, cellular infiltration and congested blood vessels in the pericardium and the enlargement and proliferation of the endothelial cells of the endocardium were recognized since the initial stage of the incubation. Generally, no particular findings were noted in the myocardium, but a mild regressive degeneration in the myocardium was observed in the cases where injections were given at a certain concentrations. 2) As the findings in the kidney in the initial stage of the incubation, the hyperemia and cellular infiltration were recognized. By the increase in the concentration, regressive degenerations such as granular degeneration, disappearance of nuclei and necrobiosis or necrosis were recognized in the urinary tubli since the initial stage of the incubation.
In the present paper, a case (a 21 years old male) of sinusitis accompanies with ichthyosis, which showed a severe hemorrhage from A. sphenopatina on the seventh day from the operation, is reported. The postoperative hemorrhage was successfully checked by means of oppressive tamponade. The present paper also deals with the statistical observations of the illness and the hemostatic methods in regard to the postoperative hemorrhage in sinusitis.
In order to learn the influence of hot water baths, which are very common in our daily living environment, on the disease resisting function observed from the view point of the functions of reticuloendothelial system, hot water baths at 45°C, warm water baths at 37°C, lukewarm water baths at 31°C and cold water baths at 18°C were given to healthy adult males for 5 minutes, 10 minutes and 15 minutes, and the fluctuation in the carbon particle phagocytosis of the neutrophile leucocytes were examined before and after the baths, and 1, 3 and 5 hours after the baths. The fluctuations in the number of circulating eosinophile leucocytes and in the pulse rate were also investigated. The followings are the brief outline of the results thus obtained. 1. In the cases of hot water bath, the phagocytic function diminished after a bath given for even as short as 5 minutes. Especially, when the baths were given for 10-15 minutes, remarkable diminution was recorded immediately after the bath was given, and no trend of recovery was noted even 5 hours after the bath. 2. In the cases of warm water bath, almost no fluctuation was recorded after the bath for 5 minutss. A bath given for 10-15 minutes enhanced the phagocytic function of leucocytes immediately after the bath, and this trend was maintained even 5 hours after the bath. In other words, the disease resisting function observed from the view point of the phagocytosis of leucocytes was enhanced by a warm water bath given for 10-15 minutes. 3. In the cases of lukewarm water bath and cold water bath, almost no fluctuation was recorded when such a bath was given for 5 minutes, but, a slight diminution of the phagocytic function of leucocytes was noted when given for 10-15 minutes. 4. The fluctuation in the number of circulating eosinophile leucocytes demonstrated almost the same trend as that of the phagocytic function of leucocytes. 5. Only in the cases of hot water bath, the pulse rate was noted influenced. Especially when a bath was given for 15 minutes, the pulse rate reached as high as 180 per minute, giving a heavy burden to the circulatory system. Otherwise, almost no effect of the baths was recognized.
The authors induced the action current of the heart in situ of Cambayus claykii through cotton thread elctrode, and recorded it with a cathode ray oscillograph for observation. In the present work, the authors were successful in a simultaneous recording of the spike potential (neurogenic action current) and the slow potential (myogenic action current) from the heart of Cambayus claykii. Acethylcholine increased the amplitude and frequency in the E. C. G. of Cambayus claykii. Adrenalin diminished the amplitude in the potential fluctuation. Atropine diminished the action potential, and interrupted the heart beat when applied for a long period of time. Eserine increased the slow potential and increased the repetitive response. Pilocarpine increased the number of slow potentials and simultaneously increased the number of neurogenic spike discharges. Prostigmine increased the spike (neurogenic) potential and slow (myogenic) potential, and increased their frequency. TEA transitorily increased the slow potential. Curare indicated no noteworthy influence on the ECG of Cambayus claykii. Mg _??_interrupted the heart beat, and later, it gave rise intermittently a storm of slow potential and the spike potential. Ca _??_and K _??_ lowered the excitability of the heart muscles. LiCl gave rise a phenomenon similar to the fibrilation observed in the heart of vertebrates. In view of the above, the authors came to the conclusion that the neurodendrites from the ganglion, which is the pace maker in the heart of Cambayus claykii, belong to the cholinergic nerve. In short, the authors concluded that the neurodendrites from the pace making ganglion of the heart of Cambayus claykii possesses the property similar to that of the parasympathetic nerve of vertebrates, and that it is connected to the muscle fibres through end apparatus which can be blocked with Mg _??_, thus the neurodendrites may belong to the cholinergic nerve.
By stimulating the tibial nerve or peroneal nerve of Bufo vulgaris, action current was led from the dorsal root to investigate the wave form of the afferent impulse. The wave form always consisted of S1 wave and S2 wave. The velocity of S1 wave was 20.4m/sec and that of S2 wave was 15.6 m/sec. The myogenic efferent impulse was found. to consist solely of S1 wave, and the cutaneal afferent impulse was found to include S1 and S2 waves. Among these two, the one which demonstrates the reflex in Bufo vulgaris is S2 only. In Bufo vulgaris, the reflexes are all the multi-neuron arc reflex. When the action current of the reflex volley was led from the ventral root, it was elucidated that this consisted of numerous groups of spikes. When the stimulus was weak, principally the reflex with long central delay, and, as the stimulus becomes stronger, reflex with short central delay tends to occur.
At various pH values of the environmental medium, excised single nerve fibre was stimulated with the long lasting direct current of vaious strengths. The response time of the action current was thereby determined to investigate the fluctuation of the genuin latent period of the action current. Even if the current of the same strength was employed as the stinulus, the response time, consequently the genuin latent period of the action current, fluctuated. Further, as the stimulating current became stronger, the response time became shorter. The amplitude of the fluctuation of the response time became smaller as the stimulating current became stronger. When the relation between the voltage and the shortest response time at each strength of the stimulating current, i. e., the voltage-response time relationship, was sought, it was found to be a hyperbola, satisfying the Weiss' experimental formula. In the voltage-response time relationship, the rheobase became lower and the chronoxie was prolonged as the pH value became larger. When the largest amplitude of the fluctuation of the response time by each pH value was investigated, it was found that the smallest amplitude of the fluctuation is at the normal pH value (pH 7.2), and that the amplitude of the fluctuation became largerat a higher pH value than pH 7.2. Since the smallest amplitude of the fluctuation of the response time indicates the steadiest progress of the excitation it can be utilized for the quantitative indication of the excitability.
By injecting ricin to fertilized hen's eggs before incubation and 5 days after the incubation, the author investigated the toxicity of ricin and its influences exercised on the development of chick embryo and on its allantoic fluid. The author further investigated the histopathological changes in the liver and kidney of the chick embryo to obtain the following conclusions. 1) Toxicity: In the cases when injected before the incubation, all of the eggs died on the 9 th day of incubation with 100γ and 1, 000γ. However, with the amounts less than 10γ, perfect hatching was proved successful though deaths were recorded in certain number of eggs. In the cases when the injections were given 5 days after incubation, all of the eggs died by the 12 th day of incubation with the amount of 1γ and 10γ. However, with the amounts less than 0.1γ, perfect hatching was proved successful though a few deaths were recorded. 2) Development of chick embryo: In the cases of pre-incubation injections, no remarkable difference was noted in the initial stage of incubation. However, in the terminal stage of incubation, injections of lower concentrations promoted the development of chick embryo, while those of higher concentrations acted rather inhibitorily. When injected 5 days after the incubation, no remarkable difference was generally observed. 3) Allantoic fluid: When injections of various concentrations were given before the incubation, the amount of allantoic fluid was found smaller in comparison with the controls in the initial stage of the incubation. Also in the terminal stage of the incubation, the excretion of urine was found inhibited when lower concentration were given, but was bound promoted when higher concentration were given. When injected 5 days before the incubation, the injection acted inhibitorily in the initial stage of the incubation. However, in the terminal stage, the excretion was larger than in the controls injected with 0.01γ, and smaller than the controls when injected with 0.1γ. 4) Findings in the liver: In the cases of the injections before the incubation, the hyperemia of the central veins and the blood vessels of the Glisson's capsules were remarkable. As the concentration of ricin increased, the regressive degenerations of hepatic cells such as vacuolar degeneration, fat degeneration and necrobiosis or necrosis were recognized. In the cases when the injections were given 5 days after the incubation, hyperemia of the central veins and the blood vessel of the Glisson's capsules were noted, but the fat degeneration of the hepatic cells was recognized only in the terminal stage of the incubation. Furthermore, when the findings in the cases with the injections before the incubation and those in the cases after the incubation (0.1γ-0.01γ) were compared, the regressive degeneration in the hepatic cells was stronger in the former cases. 5) Findings in the kidney: In the case when the injection was given before incubation, regressive degenerations in the urinary tubules and the congestion of the interstitial blood vessels were recognized. Particularly in some of those with a high concentration, hyperemia and round cells infiltration of the glomerulus were noted. In the case when the injection was given 5 days after the incubation, almost nc changes were recorded in the glomeruli, and granular degeneration of the urinary tubules was observed. Further, when the findings in the kidney in the cases of the injections before the incubation, injections 5 days after the incubation, respectively injected with 0.01γ and 0.1γ, were compared, it was learnt that the regressive degenerations in the urinary tubules in the initial stage of the incubation were found stronger when injections were given 5 days after the incubation, and that, in the terminal stage, they were found more remarkable when injections were given before the incubation.