Basic and clinical studies were performed on the effects of human plasma cholinesterase (pChE) preparation upon succinyl choline chloride (SCC) with dogs and surgical patients. The results revealed the following. 1. Six units/kg of pChE preparation elevated pChE activity of dogs significantly. 2. Six units/kg of pChE preparation significantly reduced and shortened the muscle relaxant effects of SCC in dogs. 3. Significant rise in pChE activity was noted in humans with 2, 4 and 8 units/kg of pChE preparation 4. Two units/kg of pChE preparation administered to humans once elevated pChE activity, which returned to the original level within 5 minutes, whereas 4 and 8 units/kg could maintain the activity level for more than 3 hours 5. The effect of SCC was distinctly reduced and shortened in humans by administration of 2, 4 and 8 units/kg of pChE preparation. 6. Unless the SCC, which had been previously administered several times, induced the state of phase II blocking, the effects of pChE preparation were not adversely affected 7. The pChE preparation did not show any specificity to species when administered to humans and dogs. 8. No side effect was seen by pChE preparation in the circulatory systems of humans or dogs. From the above-mentioned results, it could be assessed that positive efficacy could possibly be expected by pChE preparation against prolonged apnea with SCC or reduced pChE activity in humans.
The wall thickness of 34 arteries from 152 human adults (male: 71, female: 81) was measured and the age-related changes were examined. The materials used in this study were obtained from autopsy subjects in the Tokyo Metropolitan Medical Examiner Office and were examined in the non-fixed condition. 1) Wall thickness was generally larger on large caliber arteries than on small caliber arteries. As an exception, the wall thickness of A. mesenterica superior was larger than that of other arteries with the same caliber. 2) The wall thickness of arteries increased with age for all parts of the aorta and for proximal parts of lower extremity arteries. It did not increase on arteries of the peripheral parts of lower extremities or in the abdominal cavity. It was greatest at 40-70 years old on the arteries in the cervical region and in the upper extremities. 3) The ratio of wall thickness to inner circumference was larger in small arteries than in large arteries. 4) The thickness to circumference ratio in male subjects increased with age for all parts of the aorta, A. iliaca communis and the arteries in the cervical region and the upper extremities. In the lower extremities and the abdominal cavity, it temporarily decreased during a ten year span with the minima occurring at age 40 to 60, depending on the artery. On the other hand, in females the thickness to circumference ratio increased with age on the arteries in the cervical region, decreased with age on the all parts of the aorta, and the temporary decreases occurred between the ages of 40 and 60 on other arteries. 5) From this data and previous data on inner circumference growth with age, it was concluded that the decrease in thickness to circumference ratio is a result of circumference increase without accompanying wall growth. 6) In the relationship between wall thickness and inner circumference, the larger thickness of artery wall is accompanied by larger circumference of most arteries examined in the female, but this tendency was seen only on the aorta in the male, while other arteries in the male showed a large tendency of the wall thickness to increase with age and little tendency of the inner circumference to change.
In order to clarify the characteristics of the muscle fibers in lower extremity muscles of monkey, the myofibrous development of lower extremity muscles from 11 adult rhesus monkeys (5 males and 6 females) was investigated. The total number and the size (μ2) of muscle fibers were determined in the maximal width of cross-sectional area of venter in each muscle. The values were compared with those of the control (a 19-year-old man) . The following results were obtained. 1. In the lower extremity muscles examined, the total number and size of muscle fibers were most predominant in M. vastus lateralis, M. adductor magnus and M. biceps femoris (caput longus), and were second most predominant in M. popliteus, M. tibialis anterior and M. gastrocnemius. 2. Comparing rhesus and crab-eating monkey, the average data for both total number and size of crab-eating monkey muscle fibers corresponded to the minimum values of rhesus monkey. The myofibrous development of the lower extremity muscles of rhesus monkey tends to be superior to that of crab-eating monkey. 3. The lower extremity muscles of monkey, M. biceps f emoris (caput longus), M. plantaris and M. popliteus were more developed than those of man, while M. vastus lateralis, M. adductor longus, M. adductor brevis and M. gastrocnemius in man were more developed than their counterparts in the monkey. 4. Those muscles which have developed in man were superior in total number and size of muscle fibers to the same muscles in monkey, but there was no significant difference between total number and fiber size of the more developed muscle of monkey and their comparatively less developed counterparts in man. 5. The muscle fiber size of the two-joint muscles in the thigh of monkey was equivalent to that in man, while in the other lower extremity muscles, size in monkey tended to be inferior to size in man. 6. It was recognized that the muscles which showed large differences in myofibrous development between man and monkey were muscles which participated in special functions of the lower extremities, e. g. bipedalism in man and quadrupedalism in monkey. 7. The myofibrous development of muscles can be divided into four categories. Muscles which have large total number and size of fibers, muscles with large total number of muscle fibers, muscles which are large in size, and the muscles which are small in both total number and size of muscle fibers. The order listed above concurs with the degree of myofibrous development of the lower extremity muscles. Therefore, it is considered that increase in the size of lower extremity muscle fibers comes first, then increase in the number of muscle fibers follows in the evolutionary development of the lower extremity muscle system.
It has been reported that immune complex (DNA-ANTI-DNA) closely related to the development of pathological events in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) . It is also well known that the immune complex mainly localized in the glomeruli and dermal-epidermal junction (D-E junction) . The purpose of this report is to elucidate the relationship between the localization of immune complex in the skin and that in the renal tissue by using immunofluolescence procedure. The patients used in the study are 9 cases of SLE, 8, localized DLE (1-DLE) and 3, wide spead DLE (w-DLE) . All patients were performed skin biopsies, including involved and uninvolved areas. In all patients with SLE and w-DLE, renal biopsies were carried out. The results obtained were as follows ; The deposition of immunogloblin (IgG, IgM, IgA) and complements (mainly C1q, C3) along the D-E junction in involved skin were observed in 6/8 (75%) in 1-DLE, 3/3 (100%) in w-DLE and 6/7 (86%) in SLE, whereas their deposition in D-E junction of un-involved areas were 0/8 (0%) in 1-DLE, 0/3 (0%) in w-DLE and 5/8 (63%) in SLE. Severer deposits of immunogloblin along D-E junction in involved areas seemed to be found frequently in w-DLE than 1-DLE. Generally speaking, the severer deposits of immunog-loblin along D-E junction in SLE were found in involved skin, comparing to un-involved skin. On the other hand, the renal specimens obtained from 2 cases of w-DLE revieled minimal change accompanied with deposits of immunogloblin and complements along glonmerular capillary wall. Those findings suggested the possibility of transmission to SLE from DLE.
We observed reductional effects by a two-dimensional photoelastic model, to compare those two effects-in prone position and in supine position using our reductions apparatus. Specially the stress concentration of anterior aspect of spine were observed and compared. The results were summerized as follows; (1) In the prone position: the tension stress increased from the upper thoracic vertebra to the lower lumbar vertebra. Weak stress concentration was found at the anterior aspect of the injured vertebra. (2) In the supine position: the tension stress decreased from the injured vertebra to both the upper vertebrae and the lower vertebrae. Strong stress concentration was found at the anterior aspect of the injured vertebra. Furthermore, we experimented a model consisting of five vertebrae, the center vertebra of which was injured, in order to observe the distribution of inner principal stress. (1) In the prone position: the inner principal stress lines density was observed in the anterior section of spine, which was increased towards the lower vertebrae. (2) In the supine position: the inner principal stress was strongest in the anterior section of injured vertebra and the stress was decreased towards both upper and lower vertebrae. According to the above results, the stress concentration in the anterior aspect of injured vertebra was stronger in the supine position than in the prone position. Thus we understood that reduction using our apparatus was more effective.
The plaque technique of Cunningham and Szenberg was used to study the adjuvant effect of purified onjisaponin B on IgM and IgG formation. 1) The administration of onjisaponin B caused a significant increase of the number of plaque forming cells of the spleen after immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) . 2) The highest adjuvant effect was obtained by a dose of 0.01μg/mouse. 3) Time intervals between onjisaponin B and antigen injections revealed that onjisaponin B showed the most obvious adjuvant effect when injected with onjisaponin B and antigen simultaneously. 4) Onjisaponin B showed a remarkable adjuvant effect when injected by the intraperitoneal or intramuscular route, but less by the intravenous or subcutaneous route. 5) The administration of onjisaponin B increased not only IgM antibody forming cells, but also IgG antibody forming cells. The number of these cells reached the peak 4 and 6 days after the injection of antigen, respectively. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was used to study adjuvant effect of onjisaponin B on IgE antibody formation in mouse after immunization with ovalbumim. 6) IgE antibody formation was not observed at all when albumim was injected alone. 7) Adjuvant effect of onjisaponin B was not observed when injected with 1 and 10 μg of onjisaponin B and 100 μg of antigen. A little amount of transient antibody was observed in the case of injecting 1000μg of antigen. 8) Striking adjuvant effect was observed in the case of Al (OH) 3 gel. When onjisaponin B was added to Al (OH) 3 gel as adjuvant, no remarkable change in the production of IgE was recognized as compared with Al (OH) 3 gel alone.
From July to December 1975, 1977, 383 colonoscopies and 16 romanoscopies examinations were undertaken at Fujigaoka Hospital. Many kinds of intestinal diseases such as colonic polyps, colonic cancer and ulcerative colitis were diagnosed endoscopically in 55% of 399 cases. In twelve cases of 383 colonoscopies, we could not reach the checked-point, most of them due to post-operative adhesions. In this work we try to study the colonoscopic technique and the proper diagnosis of an important diseases, such as colonic polyps, colonic cancer and ulcerative colitis, written by experienced colonoscopist. Finally, the author made a speech about contemporary role of our endoscopic department and also the role of it in the future.
A 52 year old male, 57 kg of body weight, subjected for carotis angiography under general anesthesia. The patient had a previous history of myocardial infarction about two years ago. Then the patient was diagnosed as Behce't disease for recurrent aphtosis and anf alls of grand mal just like epilepsy During operation, the blood pressure was mainteined highly. At the end of anesthesia, the pulmonary edema was noted by an excretion of characteristic foamy and pinkish fluid through the endo-tracheal tube. IPPB therapy and administration of furosemide 20 mg, hydrocortisone 1000 mg, aminophyllin 250 mg, morphine 10 mg and lanatoside C 0.4 mg steadily released symptomes 22 hours after the onset. The cause of pulmonary edema was discussed.
A seven-year-old child had a teeth-like projection at the vestibule of the nasal cavity. The diagnosis was a partially unerupted teeth growing in inverted position associated with supernumerary teeth and it was extracted. The removed teeth was histologically confirmed to be a sound teeth. It is thought to be a rare case that a teeth develops in the nasal cavity with its crown upward and therefore, literatures were examined for further reference.
A case of osteoma of the frontal sinus is reported. A man, aged 57 complained of the frontal headache. X-ray examination showed a frontal sinus osseous tumor. CT scanning also revealed the high density area in the left frontal sinus. The tumor was removed in fragments with mucous membrane. This osteoma was classified as the compact type. Other reports on similar cases in the literatures were mentioned and discussed.