Blood cortisol and growth hormone levels in patients with bronchial asthma were studied to assess their pituitary-adrenocortical function during attacks. In patients who had been treated without glucocorticoid therapy, the blood cortisol levels during attacks were significantly higher than those of non-attacks, while the blood levels of growth hormone did not show any changes. In patients who had been treated with glucocorticoid, this elevation of coroisol levels during attacks markedly reduced, but the levels of growth hormone during attacks rather increased by steroid therapy, especially in the patients received 2, 000-5, 000 mg (predonisolone base) in total dosage. By steroid treatment of over this dosage, the secretion of growth hormone was also depressed. In inhalation test, an additional secretion of endogenous cortisol was recognized 15 minutes after antigen inhalation in almost all cases, despite of the time difference of bronchial reactions. However, it was shown also that the secretion of cortisol tended to rise again at the time of late appearance of bronchial reactions. Growth hormone lacked such specific response to antigen inhalation.
Experimental allergic interstitial pneumonitis was induced in rabbits received the prolonged sensitization, the intrapulmonary injection and the transtracheal inhalation by using Klebsiella pneumoniae (K) and Clostridium perfrigens (Cl) . The prolonged sensitization was performed by the injection of the killed bacteria, cell wall or supernatant fraction, which were emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, once a week for 13 to 27 weeks. The pulmonary specimens revealed marked interstitial damage, characterized by the formation of granuloma, the infiltration of mononuclear cells and the appearance of giant cells. By immunofluorescent study, rabbit IgG was found in the interstitial granulomatous tissue. The severer lesion was found in the group of rabbits injected with cell wall fraction than the other fractions. The intrapulmonary injections with these bacterial antigens was performed in rabbits, which have pre-sensitized with the antigens 14 days before. The pulmonary tissue directly injected with homologous (K-sensitized→K-injected, Cl-sensitized→Cl-injected) or heterologous (K→Cl, CI→K) antigens, revealed the interstitial granulomatous pneumonitis, predominantly in the surrounding area of the injected site. The severer pulmonary lesion was found in the groups of rabbits injected with homologous antigen than with the heterologous antigen. The experiment of transtracheal inhalation by using the bacterial antigens was performed in the groups of rabbits which have received one shot with the bacterial antigen 14 days before or 4 times of the injections once a week. The rabbits were sacrificed 3, 12, 48 hrs. and 7 days after the inhalation. The group of rabbits which have received one shot injection showed delayed type reaction by skin test and no or only weak precipitating antibody against the injected antigen. The pulmonary lesion revealed the interstitial granulomatous pneumonitis, characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells (predominantly) and polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the alveolar septa and space. The lesion became predominant 12 to 48 hrs. after the inhalation. The group of rabbits received the multiple (4 times) injection showed Arthus type reaction in skin test and were detected precipitating antibody. The pulmonary lesion revealed also the interstitial pneumonitis, characterized with the infiration of polymor-phonuclear leucocytes in alveolar septa in 3 hrs. after the inhalation, thereafter the infiltration of mononuclear cells became prominent. The severity of the pneumonitis was correlated wtih the titer of precipitating antibody. By immunofluorescent study, antigen of K. and Cl. were detected in the pulmonary interstitial, presumably in macrophage as early as 3 hrs. and also rabbit IgG were observed in granulomatous lesion and bronchial mucous. These data suggested that the bacterial antigen could induce the pulmonary lesion mediated by Arthus type reaction and/or delayed type reaction.
I investigated the effects of hemorrhage, retransfusion of the shed blood and an in-tracarotid infusion of hypertonic solution on the unit activity of antidromically identified neurohypophysial neurosecretory neurons recorded from the rat supraoptic area. Hemorrhage which reduced the arterial systolic pressure to 50% of the prehemorrhage pressure caused a significant increase in firing rate in 14 of the 21 units examined. Retrans-fusion of the shed blood inhibited 8 of the 19 units tested. An increase in firing rate was observed following the osmotic stimuli in 5 of the 16 units examined, while these units did not respond to an infusion of Locke's solution. Four of the 5 units that showed an excitation following a hyperosmolal stimulus were examined successfully for both hemorrhage and retransfusion of the shed blood. Two of the 4 units exhibited an excitation after hemorrhage and an inhibition following the retrans-fusion. Another one responded to the bleeding with an excitation and the remaining one unit did not respond to either treatment. These results clearly indicate that presynaptic pathways mediating neural information on the body fluid osmolarity and on circulating blood volume and/or arterial blood pressure converge on each of some paticular supraoptic neuro-secretory neurons.
The cut-all microtome has been known to be a useful method to reveal natural structure of bone marrow. Using “cut-all microtome”, acute bone marrow degeneration and early regeneration process after local 60Co irradiation to rat bone marrow were studied histologically. The results were as follows: 1) The cut-all microtome method using Epon embedding method was superior to others as was reported previously. This method makes it possible to observe bone marrow in the natural state, especially to observe sinusoidal and stromal changes. 2) After 60Co irradiation of 500 and 1000 r to rat bone marrow, degeneration and disappearance of hematopoietic elements of the erythropoietic and granulopoietic series were noted within three days. In the hematopoietic elements of the megakaryocytic series, after 60Co irradiation of 500 r, only mild changes were found, but after 60Co irradiation of 1004r, significant changes noted. 3) In addition to the above changes, sinusoidal and stromal reaction was noted. Hematopoietic depression and regeneration were found to be correlated with the disap-pearance and regeneration of the sinusoidal microcirculation. 4) Against the previous reports, in the non-irradiated bone marrow, mild degeneration of sinusoid was noted. In this study, associated with the degeneration of sinusoid -dilatation of the sinusoid and exudation-, disappearance of hematopoietic cells was noted. The etiology of the above fact was not known at present.
Various authors have described many devices for non-electric monitoring of mean arterial blood pressure, being with good results in the various experiments. For continuous measurement of mean arterial blood pressure, in ten anesthetized patients we also used a similar device (Pressurveil®) to those of Moss and Ramsey, and studied the safety and the accuracy against the results of the electromanometer. We found that if Pressurveii® would be handled appropriately, this could be safely, usefully, and easily used in clinical situations. Moreover there was a good correlation between mean arterial blood pressure measured with Pressurveil® and those with electromanometer. Regression line was Y=0.963X-2.849 (r-0997, p<0.001)
A 24-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of hematuria, headache and lethargy as chief complaint. Laboratory examination revealed anemia, marked increase of leucocyte, and decrease of blood platelet. Leucocyte analysis proved that both myeloblast and promyelocyte occupied 98%. These cells were also observed in the spinal fluid. A diagnosis was promyelocytic leukemia accompanied with disseminated intravascular coagulation and subarachnoid infiltration, substantiated by the abnormal hemostasis, the increase of FDP and the extraordinary reduction of euglobulin lysis time. Anti-leukemic agent and heparin were concomitantly given and the abnormal hemostasis was temporarily improved. However the patient later died of cardiac insufficiency. Autopsy findings did not reveal any microthrombus. In this experience, the discussion was made on the correlation between promyelocytic leukemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation on the significance of heparin administration.