In the present work, stimuli, were given to the vagal nerve of Buf o vulgaris, and thus the inotrophic and chronotrophic effects of the stimuli were investigated under heart irrigation. If the frequency and duration of the repetitive stimulation were fixed, and when the strength of stimulus approached the threshold, an acceleratory effect, though slight, appeared. Further, even if the strength was set at the maximum, an acceleratory effect appeared when the frequency was extremely lowered. Even under the conditions inducing the above acceleratory effect when right and left vagal nerves are separately stimulated, supressive effect instead of acceleratory effect appeared when stimulus was given to both vagal nerves simultaneously. When acetylcholine was added to the irrigating solution, acceleratory effect appeared if the concentration was low. However, when its concentration became higher, supressive effect appeared. Similar acceleratory effect was recognized when the heart was irrigated with the mixture of atropine and acetylcholine. From the above facts, the authors insist that the vagal nerve contains fibres which act supressively or acceleratory as according to the concentration of acetylcholine, contrary to the theory claimed by various workers that acceleratory fibres are contained in the vagal nerve.
When V-t relation was calculated by using bipolar stimulus on excised single nerve fibre, it appeared roughly a hyperbola. However, Vt-t relation did not appear perfectly lineal. Especially in the zone where the utilizing time is short, it bended downwards. Consequently, Weiss's experimental formula did not stand. When Hill's theoretical formula was viewed from the experimental results, the local potential constant (κ) became larger as the utilizing time became longer, and thus it was learnt that κ is the function of t. The constant (p) in Sakamoto's theory did not become a constant, but it became larger as the utilizing time was extended. Thus, it was learnt that p is also the function of t. As κ is the value direct in proportion to chronaxie, the increase of κ by the extention of utilizing time means that increase of chronaxie, thus it was learnt that the irritability becomes lower as the utilizing time becomes longer. The above diversion from the theoretical formula is primarily attributable to the anelectrotonus effect of the anode located in the proximity of the cathode. As the anelec-trotonus develops gradually, it is not developed sufficiently with a short period application even at a high voltage. However, if the utilizing time is extended, the anelectrotonus is developed to a fair degree even at a low voltage. The above is the reason why stronger anelectrotonus effect is exercised with a longer utilizing time than a shorter utilizing time, thus the irritability become lower. Consequently, for the purpose to avoid the influence of the anode side in the dipolar stimulation, application of electric current during a short period of time less than 0.3 msec is recommended.
In addition to radiological treatment, various kinds of anti-tumor substances are recently applied as the non-surgical treatment for the malignant tumor. The damages induced by these radiation or by these antitumor substances on the hematopoietic organs have been investigated by many workers, further, various substances have been applied to the damages for their prophylaxis and treatment. Thus, chlorophyll has also been employed for the prophylaxis and treatment of the damages caused by these radiation and anti-tumor substances. In this respect, the authors experimentally studied the influence of Cobalt Greenpole (sodium cobalt chlorophyllin) on the growth of the mice treated with X-ray or with nitromin, and obtained the following results. Cobalt Greenpole was found crpable of preventing the decline in the rate of body weight increase and in the ratio of body and liver weights of the mice induced by the irradiation at 100r. Cobalt Greenpole successfully prevented the decline in the ratio of body and liver weights induced by the injection of nitromin. The development of femur was supressed by nitromin as the body weight was supressed, but Cobalt Greenpole successfully prevented the supression.
Though various opinions have been published on the above subject, no detailed report has yet been cited in the past. The author made investigations on this subject because the results of this investigation will be reflected upon the significance of the change of the occupation and the judgement of the effect of the treatment. The results of the present investigation are as follows: 1. The progress of silicosis is found more advanced in a more serious case, and is found more advanced with the time lapse from the abandonment of the occupation. 2. Even after 1 year, progress is recognized in certain number of cases. 3. During the progress of silicosis, fine or medium sized granular shadows in the cases of Grade I, fine, mudium and large sized granular shadows and fused shadows in the cases of Grade II are recognized, while, in the cases of Grade III, fused shadows, massive shadows, bipolar shaped shadows, shadows induced by pulmonary emphysema and changes in the pleura are observed. 4. Among the cases of the same Grade, those developed within a shorter period demonstrated a more rapid progress than those developed after a longer period of time.
1. The 100% fatal dosis for male pure strain DD mouse weighing 18.0-23.0 g was 600-700 r. 2. In the experimental X-ray injuries aiming at the fatality of mouse, the seasonal influence of summer shortened toe survival of mouse after irradiation. 3. In the case of total exposure to 700 r, a specific mortality curve with 2 large peaks at 4 th and 8 th day after irradiation and 1 excavation without death at 6 th day was obtained. 4. In the case of total exposure to 700 r, the survival period of the group without measuring the body weight after irradiation was found longer than that of the group with daily measuring of the body weight. Consequently, the authors cosidered that, in addition to the shere manual handling, the mental influence such as fear or suprise is a fairly large factor to the survival period. 5. The body weight after the irradiation had no relation to the survival period, but that at the time of the irradiation was presumed to be somewhat related to the survivah period or to the life span of the mouse.
In the present work, the authors recorded the end-plate potential by Ozawa's separa-tion method employing the sartorius muscle of Bufo vulgaris. The muscle was curarized before the experiments. When acetylcholine was applied, the end-plate potential gradually rose as the time elapsed at the concentration approximately 10-8. With acetylcholine solution at the concentration approximately 10-2, the end-plate potential gradually diminished. At the concentration of 10-3 or 10-4, the end-plate potential was inhibited in the beginning and facilitated later. Approximately the same trend in the action of eserine on the end-plate potential was noted. When the end-plate potential of curarized muscle was raised to certain degree by the action of acetylcholine or of eserine, the nerve impuls was transf eyed to muscle, and the muscle contraction was induced.
Sartorius nerve-sartorius muscle preparations were made from Bufo vulgaris, and two stimuli were given at various intervals to lead and record the action potentials. As long as the intervals ranged between 3.5 msec and 9.8 msec (6.1 msec in average), no action potential of the muscle were recorded. As the absolute refractory periods of the muscle fibres and that of the nerve fibres have already elapsed in most cases at this moment, the absolute refractory period observed in this kind of complex excitable tissue is the absolute refractory period of the end-plate. When the absolute refractory period of the end-plate has elapsed, the action potential induced by the first stimulus is much larger than that induced by the second stimulus. Further, the action potential induced by the maximal stimulus given through the governing nerve of the muscle, is 1/5-1/6 of the action potential of the muscle induced by the maximal direct stimul In view of the above facts, the authors recorded that there exist many end-plates which are first facilitated by two or three nerve impulses in addition to those facilitated by a single nerve impulse.
The present paper deals with the phenomenon induced by the application of guanidine to the striated muscle. Guanidine enhances the excitablity of the terminal fibres, thus repetitive excitations are induced by a single nerve impulse. This impulse then is transmitted to the muscle fibres through the end-plates on one hand, and also ascends antidromically through the motor nerve on the other hand. In the muscle treated with guanidine, even a direct stimulation induces repetitive excitation. In this case, however, the action current stimulates the terminal fibres, the excitability of which is enhanced by guanidine, to induce repetitive excitation in this portion, then this excitation is transmitted again to the muscle through the end-plate to induce muscular contraction. Simultaneously, the group of impulses antidry omically ascends through the nerve fibres. Furthermore, when the action of guanidine progressed, repetitive excitation is induced also in the terminal fibre, without being stimulated, muscle contraction occurs, then, on the other hand, the group of impulses induced in the terminal fibre antidromically ascends through the nerve fibres. As to the portion of the terminal fibre in which this antidromic impulse occurs, Toriumi, one of the present authors, has investigated the similar phenomenon by TEA and reported. Therefore, the present paper does not deal with this question. Presumably, the point on which guanidine acts is the same as that by TEA. Guanidine possesses the action to potentiate the end-plate potential.
(1) The irradiation of the super-long wave magnetic force with an adquate dosis and at an adequate interval acted favorably on the growth of young DD strain mice. (2) Placing the standard at the lethal irradiation of mature male DD strain mice, when the prevention of X-irradiation injuries by superlong wave magnetic force irradiation was observed, super long wave magnetic force irradiation acted favorably in the lowering of the death rate and in the prolongation of survival period. (3) Most favorable effect to the total body expesure to 700 r was noted with one 10 minutes exposure to super-long wave magnetic force irradiation before X-irradiation.
Giving injections of philopon to fertilized hen's eggs, the authors conducted histopathological investigations on the cerebral tissue of chick embryo during the incubation. The following results were thus obtained. (1) In the leptomeninx congested blood vessels were generally observed. It was accompanied by hemorrhage in the early stage, and by cell infiltrations in the late stage of incubation. (2) In the brain, congestion of the parenchymal blood vessels was observed in the whole area. In the late stage of incubation, it demonstrated expanding picture. Further, in the cases high concentration injections were given, the picture was accompanied by hemorrhage. Cell infiltration was recognized in the cases with the injection of 1 mg. and with 5 mg. (3) Coarseness of the tissue was recognized in the late stage of incubation in the cases with low concentration, but was recognized since early stage in the cases with high concentration. (4) Demyelination foci were observed in the cases with all concentrations employed in the present experiment except with 10 mg in the late stage of incubation. Further, slight necrosis-like or necrotic pictures were noted in the cases with 5 mg. (5) As changes in the nerve cells, diffuse homogeneous changes or serious changes were observed since 12 th day of incubation, though the degree was generally slight. (6) The progress of neuronophagia was in parallel with that of the degeneration of nerve cells in the cases with all concentrations employed in the present experiment since 12 th day of incubation though slight in degree. (7) Proliferation of glia cells was recognized in the late stage of incubation in the cases with low concentration, and since early satge in the cases with high concentration. (8) Particularly pathological fat deposite was not observed in the nerve cells, myelin sheath or in the glia cells. However, presumably reciprocal fat degeneration was recognized in the cases with 1 mg on 15 th day of incubation.
The present work deals with the so-called experimental mumps. The virus employed in the present work is the amniotic virus of Showa B strain, which was isolated by the present authors from a case in the epidemic of February in 1952 by the intra-amniotic inoculation of pure parotid saliva of the case. At the time of the present experiments, the hemagglutination titre of the virus was 1280, and was bacteriologically proved to contain no organisms. The virus was introduced into the volunteers in the amount of 0.2-0.3 cc through the Stensen's duct by Johnson and Goodpasture's technique unilaterally. The ager of the volunteers ranged from 8 to 20 years. Although their pre-experimental history was unknown, their clinical signs in various fields and blood hemograms were investigated before and after the experiments. Specimens of blood were taken from them for the immunological investigations which will be described later. The concentrations of the virus given were undiluted amniotic fluid, and 1: 5 and 1: 100 diluted amniotic fluids, though the concentration was found unrelated to the manifestation of the disease. Among the 10 cases where active virus was given, 2 cases demonstrated the ordinary incubation period of approximately 20 days, though 3 cases of the remainders showed in-cubation periods ranging from 1 to 3 days accompanied by eminent relative lymphocytosis and swelling of the parotid gland in parallel with the incubation period. The prognosis was quite favorable. The side of the smollen parotid gland coincided with that of the inoculation. In 5 cases of the volunteers, no signs what-so-ever were recognized, but antibydy formation was slightly proved in 3 cases among them by the immunological in-vestigations, which will be dealt with later. No cases of the volunteers inoculated with the virus inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation manifested any clinical sign. Further, no complement fixing antibody was proved among them. In the present work, in short, the mumps with unilateral swelling of parotid gland induced by the inoculation with this virus was successfully proved clinically.
This part of the present series of work deals with the immunological studies on the experimental mumps. Previously, the authors described the clinical and hematological aspects of the experimental mumps induced by the strain of virus isolated by the authors. In the present work, the authors determined the hemagglutination inhibition titres (H. I. T.) and the complement fixation titres (C. F. T.) of the sera collected from the volunteers. Ten volunteers received active virus and 3 received the virus inactivated by the ultraviolet irradiation. Antibody formation was recognized in 8 out of the 10 volunteers who recieved active virus, Fourteen household inmates of the volunteers manifested no clinical signs, and none of them showed the rise in the H. I. T. As the antigen for these serological tests, Showa B strain, which was used for the infection, and Lederle Mumps Diagnostic Antigen were employed. Needless to say, the antibody formation as measured by the hemagglutination inhibition and complement fixation tests was higher in those demonstrated eminent clinical signs, but even in some of those demonstrated no clinical signs, antibody formation was noted though lower in grade. The presence of the antibody was proved along the progress of the disease. However, its remarkable rise was found closely related to the time of the swelling of parotid gland. In other words, when the swelling of the parotid gland occurred earlier, the antibody formation was found earlier. The timely difference in the rise of H. I. T, and the C. F. T. will he dealt with in separate paper.
Fertilized eggs of white leghorn were inoculated into amniotic cavity with the saliva collected from 15 cases of mumps. Two strains of mumps virus were isolated as the results. The virus was proved by hemagglutination first at 4 th or 5 th generation of passage. Chick erythrocyte agglutination titre of the virus was not determined at the first positive generation. It was 640 at 2 nd generation. It became lower during the period from 9 th to 15 th generation, and later showed the maximal titre of 3840. Thereafter, the titre remained between 320-1280. As the virus was accidnetally proved during the passages, the connection between the virus inoculated and that recovered was not clear. However, the findings in the separate experiments on the recovery of the virus was found explaining, the above connection. Since the isolation of the virus was successful only in 2 cases, discessions were made on the remaining 13 cases from the view point of the presence or absence of the virus. As the results, the ahthors stated that the success or failure in the isolation of the virus should not be judged only from the amount of the virus. When observed from the readiness for the so-called adaptation to the egg, these 2 isolated strains did not show the readiness for the adaptation. In other words, these 2 strains became readily adaptable by mere accident. Therefore, the many negative results obtained in the present word was considered not unreasonable even if the virus would have been Present. These 2 strains of virus were presumed to be mumps virus from the results obtained in the separate immunological experiments and in the studies on the experimental human mumps.
In the present paper, comparisons were made between the results of the studies onn the so-called experimental mumps and those on the natural epidemic mumps. Further, from this angle of observation, discussions were made on the host-parasite broblem in the mumps virus infection. Previously, the authors conducted and reported the studies on the human experimental mumps induced by the Showa B strain of virus isolated by the authors. Basing upon the clinical findings, hemogram, antibody formation, etc., cases were divided into 4 Types as follows: Type I····Cases showing clinical findings, hematologic findings and antibody formation Type II····Cases of which incubation period was not noted or was very short Type III····Cases in which only antibody formation was noted Type IV ····Cases which showed no reaction The authors, on the other hand, investigated an epidemic of mumps which broke out in a local primary school in Sizuoka Prefecture, and learned that these cases can be divided into 4 Types according to clinical findings, antibody formation, etc. Discussions were made, e from various angles, on these two kinds of mumps. For the experimental mumps, amniotic fluid virus possessing the hemagglutination titre of 1280 was canulated into Stensen's duct by Johnson and Goodpasture's technique. In the epidemic mumps, the causative virus was wild, and was not so-called egg adapted virus. Further, in the latter case, the infecting dosis and the actual infection site were not known. When compared with the wild virus, amniotic virus was presumed to possess more dissociation or some changes in the character. Hence, some altered host response for this.s was considered. Discussions were also made on the fact that clinical manifestations of mumps in the experimental case were accompanied first by parotide swelling, while, in the epidemic mumps, such relation was not clear. In the experimental mumps, parotitis was restricted on the canulated side, while, in the epidemic mumps, parotitis was unilateral or bilateral. In the epidemic mumps, cases belonging to Type II can not be detected. Furthermore, Type II has not yet been referred to in any experimental mumps in the past. The presence of Type III suggested the presence of the cases tiding over the disease without symptoms not necessarily possessing detectable antibody before infection. Similary, as to the Type IV, it suggested the presence of thee cases which tide over the disease without detectable complement fixing antibody or reaction. Making discussions on each Type, the present paper referred to the truthfulness of the authors' experimental mumps and to various problems which can not be made clear merely by the observations on the epidemic mumps.
Since 1948 epidemic of Japanese B encephalitis in Japan, cases of the disease were intermittently reported every year. More than 30 such cases have been attended by the author's Department since then. It is well known that central nervous system is not the only system attacked by the disease, but each of the organs are damaged by the virus inn the state of viraemia through the blood stream. Especially, kidney is considered to be the principal one among such organs. By the present histopathological investigations of Japanese B encephalitis, the following results were obtained. The ages of the subjects of the investigations ranged from 9 months to 74 years. The days of disease ranged from 2 to 105 days. Even though the principal importance should be placed in the degenerative changes in the loop epithelium in the glomerulus, it was difficult to neglect inflammatory elements such as multinuclear cells, exsudation andd circulation arrest. In view of the above, the author included the changes in the category of acute glomerulitis. The granular degeneration and swelling of the uriniferous tubular epithelial cells were remarkable in the main portion. The decrease or disappearance of the argentaffinity of the fibres of the glomerular and uriniferous tubular basement membrane was partly attributed to the degeneration of the uriniferous tubular epithelium, and partly to the circulation arrest in the interstitium. When the action mechanism of the virus was discussed, the author considered that the changes in the argentafrinity of the basement membrane fibres spreads partly down stream to the urinary passage, and partly through the blood stream.
Case : A 26 years old male The case was suffering from sinus thrombosis caused by perisinual abscess following cholesteatoma of middle ear originated from central perforation of ear drum. As the result, meningitis and encephalitis in the region of vault of the skull with hemiplegia and hemihypesthesia were induced. The present paper also deals with cholesteatoma of middle ear, snus thrombosis andsd intracranial complications of the ear diseases.
Injections of 300, 000-600, 000 units of penicillin procain sol were given to a case of acute cystitis and to another case of acute mastitis. Both of the cases collapsed 30 seconds after the injection, and demonstrated serious symptoms such as agony in the chest, accelerated pulsation, dyspnea, soft pulsation, turbidity of consciousness, general convulsion, measles-like redness on the face, extremities and trunk and hyperemia of conjunctiva. Fortunately, both cases escaped from unfavorable outcome. Although the essence of the allergic response is still unknown, the author advocates a special attention to the patients' constitution, especially in those cases with disturbed balance of autonomous nervous system, specifically with parasympathetic nervous system tonous constitution of allergic constitution, or those cases experienced idiosyncrasy reaction such as asthma or other allergic diseases. The author also stresses the necessity to avoid the abuse of penicillin preparations, attention to the patients' constitution and intradermal reaction with small dosis as prophylactic measures. No other treatments than symptomatic ones are known. Heart stimulant, respiration stimulant, adrenalin and adti-eistamine drugs are recommended. Componsation of body fluid by Ringer solution and glucose injections are also recommended.