Quinine, quinidine and quinacrine showed a slight inhibitory effect on ChE's in the liver and the brain of the cat and on amine oxidases of the hog kidney. The affinity of quinine-group compounds to ChE's is at the highest on the ACNE of the liver and at the lowest on the specific ChE of the brain. Seventy % of the activity of MAO was inhibited by 10-2M quinine and 77% of the activity of DAO was inhibited by 10-3M quinacrine, 50% by 10-2M quinine and quinidine. The therapeutical dosage of quinine sulfate may have no effect on ChE's and amine oxidases in aa body. The therapeutical dosage of quinidine sulfate may inhibit about 50% of the ACNE activity of the liver, but may have no effect on other ChE's and amine oxidases.
Many morphological studies on the palate of stutterers have been reported. All these studies, however, were based on indirect measurements by the impression method using the plaster models of modeling compounds. This author designed and used an instrument which enables direct and accurate measurements, and the values thus obtained on stutterers were compared with those of the normal group. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The palate width of stutterers was slightly wider and showed a significantly high value in its correlation to the age. 2. The palate height of stutterers was slightly higher at the first premolar, and markedly at the second molar and showed also a significantly high value in its correlation to the age. 3. The dentatl arch (only at the part of the second molar) was higher in stutterers, and its correlation to the age was also markedly high. 4. Dental arch showed considerable differences in the shape among normal individuals but stutterers showed no special shape. 5. No difference was observed on the row of teeth between the two.
Ossification of the costal cartilage was investigated by the appearance of thoracic X-ray pictures of 633 normal persons ranging in the age from 0 to 73 (370 male and 263 females), and 42 stutterers ranging in the age from 0 to 52 (39 males and 3 females) . Capacity of lungs was also compared between the stutterers (ranging in the age from 4 to 54, 149 males and 23 females) and normal persons. Further, external appearance of the clavicle was examined on 93 stutterers. The results obtained were as follows: 1. No significant difference was seen in the ossification between stutterers and normal individuals. 2. No sign of the ossification was detected in both male and female children under 6 years of age. 3. Ossification of the first costal cartilage appears ealier among females, however, the completion of ossification was seen in 100% in both sexes over the age 51 to 60. 4. The lower third, fourth and fifth costal cartilages showed the sign of ossification earlier than other costal cartilages in both sexes, however, the ossification was completed in 100% among the females ranging in the age from 41 to 50 which was 10 years earlier than in males. 5. No distinction was seen in the in the ossifiation of costal cartilages between the left and the right. 6. Difference of the ossification between males and . females suggests the presence of some relationship between the ossification and the respiratory movements, but as the individual difference is so great further considerations are necessary. 7. The capacity of lungs of stuutterers did not differ from that of normal individuals. 8. Malformation of the clavicle is not necessarily high among stutterers.
Vagus and sympathetic trunk are said to have two kinds of cholinergic and adrenergic fiber. Employing rabbits, both nerves were exposed and stimulated with varying intensity by use of a Poter type inductorium for the investigation of the cardiac intervals of ECG. When a weak stimulation was given on the vagus, the interval was shortened while it was prolonged when it was given on the sympathetic trunk. Whereas, when a strong stimulation was placed on the vagus the interval was prolonged, while it was shortened when it was placed on the sympathetic trunk. The reason for this phenomenon is considered to be due to the difference in the threshold of the electric stimulation between the two nerves which contain both kinds of adrenergic and cholinergic fiber. Under the influence of stimulation, moreover, fractional narcosis of vagus and sympathetic trunk was undertaken by the use of 2.0% urethan-Ringer solution. In the case of vagus, the cardiac intervals diminished following the advance in the time of narcosis reaching its minimum 4 to 6 minutes after starting. Thereafter, however, the intervals began to be increased being restored to their normal value by the end of 10 to 12 minutes. The findings of the narcosis of sympathetic trunk were practically the same. When the same expriments . were repeated by use of 1.6% urethan-Ringer solution, the cardiac intervals became minimum 6 minutes after starting narcosis but showed no change thereafter for a considerable period of time. This suggests the intrruption of the cholinergic fiber conduction and the presence of adrenergic one which is considered to be due to the higher susceptibility of cholinergic fiber to the influence of narcotics than adrenergic one.
1. Young mice, of thoes were received a daily injection of 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg histamine for a period of 30 days were divided into two groups of those died in an early stage (acute group) and those sacrificed after completion of the 30 days injections (chronic group) for the investigation of the histological effects of histamiue on the mucinous gland (Weber gland) . 2. Mice in the acute group presented extremely strong changes in comparison to those in. the chronic group and in both grops there was a strong tendency to show stronger changes in the mice received higher concentrations. While, this tendency was mild on the reticular fiber of the basal membrane. 3. In the chronic group, the appearance of common changes (irregular arrangement of the glandular epitherial cells, swelling, desquamation of the epitherial cells of secretory duct etc) and the additive changes produced by the increase in the concentration of histamine administration, (colliquative change of grandular epitherial cells, destruction, fusion destruction of the epitheriall cells of the secretory duct etc) was slow. While, in the acute group, changes appear increasing in intensity with the increase in the concentration of histamine, but at the same time tissue destructive changes appear suddenly. 4. The changes observed on the reticular fiber of the basal membrane in both acute and chronic groups, especially in the animal received concentrated histamine, generally paralleled in intensity with those of glandular epithelial cells suggesting the importance of their association withh the degeneration of glandular epitherial cells rather than with the changes produced in the externall conditions surrounding the secretory duct. 5. Histological changes observed in the present study are considered to be caused by the tissue toxic substance produced under the hypoxemic influence of histamine administration, andd this toxic substance is considered secondarily to act on Weber gland directly.
1. On measuring various parts of the body of white male rats of Wistar breed, the ratio of renal weight to the body weight was found to decrease repidly as far as 55 days after birth, and gradually being eased thereafter. Its ratio to the body length was found to increase gradually while its ratio to the bcdy surface area remained always constant. 2. No difference in the measurement was recognized between the kidney of right side and the left side. An extremely high grade of positive correlation was found to exist among the renal weight, long axis, width and the thickness. Extirpation of one side kidney, therefore, was sufficient for measurement. 3. Compensatory renal hypertrophy appears to be completed within a relatively short pericd of time and the rate of renal hypertrophy observed on the rat 30 days after birth followed a rapid increase as far as 40 days after operation reaching to the maximum rate of 2.14 times, and this increase slackened thereafter. The ratio of the hypertrophied kidney to the body surface area attained the maximum rate of 2.92 on the 40th day after operation and diminished thereafter. 4. On experimentally hypertrophied kidney, the ratio of width to the long axis, the ratio of thickness to the long axis, and the ratio of thickness to the width all presented a remarkable increase as far as 40 days after operation and the ratios decreased gradually thereafter. The rate of elongation was highest in the thickness, and the width and the long axis followed in the order listed, the kidney gradually becoming spherical.
1. Out of the total 426 patients examind, 92 cases (21.59%) were found to be positive of candida in their vagina. 2. The positive rate of pregnant women was 29.05% and non pregnant 17.62%. 3. The positive rate was high among the women of sexual maturity. 4. There was no seasonal variation in the rate of candida detection. 5. Out of the 65 candida strains isolated, C. albicans occupied 63.07% and its rate of detection among the patients with symptoms of candiasis was over 80%. 6. The rate of detection was higher on the vagina of higher cleanliness. 7. Candida negative cases became candida positive and developed its infection after the treatment with antibiotics. When antibiotics were used on candida positive cases, the number of onset cases increased. Thus, it was clarified that candida appeared as an alternative microorganisms as the rsult of antibiotic traatment. 8. Out of the 92 cases, those who developed candidiasis were 19 (20.6%) with the main complaint of pruritus vulvae (93.3%) . 9. Out of the 10 cases of new-borns examined, candida was positive in 1 case. It showed no symptoms of candidiasis and the source of infection was unknown. 10. On mice experimentally infected with candida by oral and intravenous inoculation, chlortetracycline was found to enhance its proliferation while Trichomycin inhibit. 11. Tests made on the 50 strains of candida isolated showed that Trichomycin inhibits their growth at a concetration 1.0-0.1 u/ml. 12. Both Trichomycin and Trichomycin-Penicillin (suppository) applied on 50 patients showed excellent clinical effects.
So-called crape or rugose colony variant originated from the old broth culture of the mutabile type variant of Murase of Salmonella typhi-murium. The colony grown on the plain agar plate is wet, flat, translucent, larger in size than the ordinary S-type colony and, at first, rich in crapes (especially on the aged culture plate) . The colony grown on 2% citrate agar plate is wet and quite smooth showing a size of ordinary Salmonella colonies. When cultured in fluid medium, it forms a thin, rather tough pellicle as if supported by a net on slightly turbid fluid medium. While, on the galactose-Endo plate, it forms a common M-type colony of poor growth. Its galactose sensitivity determined by paper disk method (Fukutome et al.) is similar to that of the original M-type variant. Galactose resistant daughter colonies in a shape of mushroom are formed on the M-type colony grown on the Endo plate. These daughter colonies form crape colonies on the Endo plate as on the agar plate. The findings stated above show that the ruga forming charactor acquired or has become apparent in the generation of M-type is inherited by MT through M-MT mutation. Rugose celony variation, however, takes place even in the original genration and RT (reverse mutant of M to the original) . It may be possible, therefore, to make an inference that a charactor related to the rugose colony variation is transmitted from the original generation to the M-generation in which it suddenly becomes apparent by an unknown cause. From this point of view, the findings of the present study seem to criticize the rugose colony variation in the original type genetically.
Hypophyseal triangles are of considerable interest not only in the field of human anatomy but also in the comparative anatomy. Stated in the following are the findings of craniometric studies made on the dog. The mean of∠NPBr in ΔPNBr of the dog was the largest being 68.2°±0.51 and∠PNBr was the smallest being 49.0°±0.43. ∠PBrL of ΔPBrL was the largest being 88.6°±0.52 and∠BrPL was the smallest being 29.1°±0.43. Above findings were quite different from the human cases. In the dog, ΔNPL forms an isosceles triangle with∠NPL as its vertical angle, while in the human being, Δ NBrL forms an isosceles triangle with∠NBrL as its vertical angle.