As is well known, crescent formation is seen in the glomerulus in cases of chronic and subacute nephritis among various diseases of the kidney and this represents an important basis for the differentiation of renal diseases. In the present experiment, crescnt formation was histologically studied among the changes in the renal glomerulus of rabbits given phenylhydrazine and naphthalin. Crescent formation was found in 4 cases given a low dose and 2 cases given a medium dose of phenylhydrazine, totaling 6 cases and those with long survival. However, no crescent formation was seen in those given naphthalin. Histologically, fibrous crescent was encountered in most cases, while epithelial crescent formation cannot be entirely ruled out. Based on the present experiment, long survival and relatively slow and persistent tissure injury especially intercapillary hydrops appear to be the prerequisite for crescent formation.
In young rabbits (500-600 g) receiving 3 consecutive daily injections of chloramphenicol (CP) into the quadriceps muscle or reard under immobilization of the hind leg with a cast the tension and histologic changes of the quadriceps muscle were examined in course of time with the following results: 1. Relatively localized fibrosis and the presence of excessive fat cell were found in the quadriceps muscle injected with CP. 2. Marked atrophy of musculature occurred in the quadriceps muscles of the rabbits with an immobilized hind leg with a cast. The longer the duration of cast immobilization was, the stronger this changes was. 3. The rectus femoris muscle was found in the tensile-breaking test to rupture at the muscle-tendon region approximately 10 cm proximal to the patella. 4. The stress-strain diagram at rupture of the rectus f emoris muscle gave value varying from 2.0 to 3.0 cm. When reached 25 to 30% of the whole length of the muscle, it developed complete rupture. 5. Tension of the rectus femoris muscle reached a peak after 8 weeks when fibrosis and the presence of excessive fat cell were marked. It was also the strongest in the strongest in the animals subjected to 8 weeks' cast immobilization, in which atrophy and fibrosis of musculature were histologically confirmed. 6. The present study suggested the relation between fibrosis, atrophy, fatty degeneration, etc. of musculature and the development of muscular contracture. Accordingly, it will be desirable to avoid such a treatment as causing fibrosis of musculature as far as possible for prevention of muscular contracture.
It was possible to record the single unit discharges associated with knee movement from split dorsal root of toad in which the skin and muscle of lower limbs were removed. Two kinds of discharges were recognized at the passive movement of the knee-joint: i, e, rapidly and slowly adaptating discharges. The former were induced mainly during the movement and adaptated rapidly after cease of movement and were responded equivalently by extension or flexion of the joint. The latter continued discharges after cease of movement. Frequencies of latter discharges in adaptated situation were varied depending upon the receptors and the angle of the joint. Each receptor responded in a certain range of angle and maximally at a difinit angle. Therefore each receptor respond to some range of angle (activity range) . Two kinds of activity ranges recognized. One was narrow and the other was wide responding to nearly allranges of the joint movement. The slowly adaptating discharge also varried in frequency during movement. However those of discharge were varried by the direction of the movement since a definit discharge appeared in a definit angle of joint. From those results, it was suggested that the rapidly adaptating discharge may give the information of movement and that the slowly adaptating one the information of the position and the direction of movent of the joint. Both receptors of rapidly and slowly adaptating discharges were distributed to be respond to all angles of the joint. In hydrops caused by injection of physiological saline solutn into the joint, the slowly adaptating discharge were responded by changing the intra-joint pressure. Optimal pressure providing maximal discharge frequency was obtained and differed from receptor to receptor ; some responded to a responded to a relativly narrow range of a variation in pressure while the other to a wide range. The former had a higher frequency and changed more markedly in response to a variation in pressure than the latter. Another low amplitude discharges appeared in chronic hydrops initially or by rising the intra-joint pressure. This kind of discharge disappeared by intra-joint application of xylocaine, therefore this might be induced by some change in receptor of chronic hydrops and inform pain sensation of joint.
Studies were performed on immunogloblin (Ig) in the childhood of both healthy and disease status utilizing immunoplate technic, and following results were obtained. 1. The level of IgG in healthy children decreased after delivery down to 35% of adults value at the age of 7-9 months followed by elevation gradually thereafter, and reached to 80% of them at 6 years of age. Similar tendency was observed in the distribution of IgA as of IgG, while IgM increased rapidly and reached to almost same level as those of adults at the 6 years. 2. Decreassed IgG were observed in nephrotic syndrome with nonspecific change both in IgA and M. Howevrer, no remarkable change of IgG, A and M were seen in the stage of remission. 3. In collagen disease, especially in SLE, moderately elevated value of IgG were observed in the initial stage, and returned to normal at the time remission. No remarkable change are seen in the both IgA and IgM. 4. Both IgG and A showed elevated level at the time of diagnosis in leukemic children, while IgM showed elevation in the two third of the cases. Upon starting antileukemic treatment, all the classes of Ig tend to decrease. However, the level of IgG keep continuing alomost same value in the long-surviving cases till the deteriorating stage in hematological conditions preior to expiration.
In iron deficiency anemia, there is a positive correlation between the rate in hemoglobin by the treatment with iron preparations and serum ceruloplasmin level. The effects of ceruloplasmin on iron metabolism were investigeted using copper deficient rats. In copperdeficient rats, the serum ceruloplasmin level was markedly decreased, and the release into the plasma of the 59FeSO4 infused into the stomach or peritoneal cavity was impaired. The transfer of the radioactive iron from the plasma to the liver was markedly increased. The radioactivity in the small intestine was determined at given stages following the infusion of 59FeSO4 into the stomach, and it was revealed that the radioactivity was high in copper-deficient rats. The release of the radioactive iton the serous membrane into the plasma was markedly impaired, and the transfer of the iron from the mucous membrane to the serous membrane was decreased. In the ceruloplasmin-free plasma, the binding of iron with transf errin was inhibited. From the results of the above-mentioned experiments, it was thought that ceruloplasmin would be related to the release of iron into the plasma through the binding of iron with transferrin by means of oxidizing Fe.
The effects of temperature on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in mitochondria in rat liver were studied. MAO activity was determined by measuring oxygen uptake manometrically and incubation bath maintained at desired temperature by circulating water from a thermoregulator, Frigomix. The following results were obtained : 1) With tyramine or serotonin as substrate, the reaction rate increased markedly with increase in temperature. When benzylamine and butylamine were used as substrates, MAO activity was increased slightly with increase in temperature. However, in case of β-phenyl-ethylamine used as substrate, MAO activity was not affected by changing in temperature between 15 to 45°C. 2) When tyramine was used as sudstrate, at a higher concentration of the substrate, inhibition by the excessive concentration of the substrate at lower temperature was observed. However, in case of benzylamine or serotonin used as substrate, pS-activity curves were not affected by changing in temperature. 3) The pH-activity curves became higher and sharper with increase in temperature in case of tyramine, serotonin or benzylamine used as substrate. 4) The effects of temperature on inhibition of MAO activity by pargyline and harmine were studied. When tyramine, serotonin and benzylamine were used as substrates, the differences of pI curves were obtained with pargyline and harmine at 37°C, 25°C and 15°C. 5) The influences of NaNO2 and NH2OH on MAO activity with tyramine, serotonin or benzylamine as substrate were affected by changing in temperature.
Rats were raised on a folic acid-free ration, and with the folic acid-deficient rats so obtained as material, next experiments were made on folic acid metabolism. The biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins in the bone marrow of patients of hypoplastic anemia was studied, and by comparing the results of the study with the findings in the experiments with the folic acid-deficient rats, the etiology of hypoplastic anemia and the significance of massive dose folic acid therapy were discussed. As the result of the author's experiments, it was revealed that, in the folic acid-deficient rats, the DNA biosynthesis was most markedly impaired, and the RNA biosynthesis was less but still markedly impaired, but the protein biosynthesis was only slightly impaired. In patients of hypoplastic anemia, the DNA biosynthesis was not virtually impaired, but the RNA and protein biosynthesis were impaired. The activity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was markedly low in both the folic acid-deficient rats and the patients of hypoplastic anemia. The assay by the L. casei method revealed that the folic acid level in the serum was low in the patients of hypoplastic anemia. These findings led to a surmise that the template activity is reduced by the formation of abnormal DNA in folic acid deficiency, and the de novo synthesis of purines in the liver is impaired. The DNA activating area was narrowed in the bone marrow of patients of hypoplastic anemia, and it is undeniable that massive dose folic acid therapy will possibly normalize the area.
The axoplasmic flow has been the growing interests for scientists who intend to study the neural function. In order to make clear the mechanism of axoplasmic flow in its relation to other physiological phenomena of the axon, it seems necessary to establish a method to study the axoplasmic flow in vitro. For this purpose, an special incubation chamber separated into 6 compartments by the wedge of septums (3 mm thickness), was used in present experiments. The rat sciatic system, including L4-L6 spinal cord to common peroneal as well as tibial nerve, was excised and placed in this chamber and was incubated at 37°C in 4 ml of KrebsRinger bicarbonate buffer with 1 mM of leucine. At the proximal compartment, 14C-leucine (40 mμCi/4 ml of medium) was added and the radioactivity in the distal ones was measured at a definite interval. The results are as follows : (1) The fast and slow transports were recognized like as in vivo. The velocities of slow and fast transports were about 4 and 576 mm/day respectively. The ratio of labeled compound in slow and fast transports was 3 to 1. (2) The elution profiels were clearly biphasic in colum chromatography (SephadexG 25) of the labeled materials in the medium of distal compartments. The first peak was estimated the soluble protein more than 5, 000 (M.W.) and the second peak was presumabely the free leucine. (3) The autoradiographic pictures directly demonstrate the labeled materials confined to intra-axonal spaces and that is clear-cut “plug” of radioactive materials within the axon. (4) Some amino acids were also eligible for transport at different rates, which was highest in L-glutamate and lowest in a-aminoisobutylate. Although, L-glutamate accelerated the leucine transport, the effect of GABA on transport was variable and both glycine and D-glutamate lowered it. (5) Leucine transport was inhibited slightly by colchicine, vinblastine or vincristine and significantly decreased under hypoxia, low glucose media or hypothermia and markedly was inhibited by cyanide or iodoacetic acid and was diminished by cycloheximide or puromycin. (6) Chinoform, chlorpromazine, imipramine, amitriptyline streptomycin, kanamycin markedly inhibited the slow transport. (7) This leucine transport was significantly promoted by high potassium ions and even more intensified by additional deprivation of calcium ions. These observations imply that axoplasmic flow might associate with membraneous mechanism related to calcium ions.
Twenty-seven year-old man was admitted for the rapidly progressive renal insufficiency without previous renal history. Autopsy revealed bilateral small contracted kidneys. Right and left kidney weights were 40 g and 60 g, respectively. Histologically, bilateral renal hypoplasia and subacute nephritis were found. The number of glomeruli was decreased in the kidneys. There were also marked epitherial proliferation of the Bownan's space and crescent formation. Therefore, it was supposed that subacute nephritis was superimposed in the case with congenital bilateral hypoplastic kidneys.