To clarify the toxic action of extracts of filarial worms, Setaria digitata, Setaria equina and Dirofilaria immitis, biological, chemical and pharmacological studies were performed. 1) The lethal dose of the crude fraction of S. digitata was 30 mg/kg, when given to guinea pigs intravenously. 2) The extract of S. digitata was able to divide into 3 kinds of fractions, fat, protein and polysaccharide and these fractions were not hemolytic. 3) The Shwartzman phenomenon of each fraction of filarial worms was positive except the fatty fraction. And the protein fraction was most active. 4) Relative reagin and allergic reactions were observed among Setaria digitata, S. equina and Dirofilarla immitis respectively. 5) Fractions of filarial extract were antigenetic, then it will be able to utilize to diagnostic use in future. 6) Pharmacological reactions with the extract of filarial worms were the combination of 3 kinds of action, allergic, allergy-like and toxic action of worms.
Cephalin-cholesterol flocculation reaction is inhibited by the addition of lecithin into the reagent. Addition of lecithin in a ratio of 0.05-1 against 1 part of cephalin caused the reduce in positive reactions in the order of the increase in the amount of lecithin becoming negative in the end. By the addition of lecithin in a certain ratio, however, the reaction becomes specifically positive on the sera of hepatic disturbance. Addition of lecithin, moreover, makes it easy emulsify the reagent and the reagent once emulsified is able for the storage of several days. A reagent which is stable and gives positive reactions on the sera of hepatic disturbance alone was prepared by the fractionation of cephalin into phosphatidyl-cerin and dy the addition of lecithin in compliance with the specificity of the reagent obtained.
Nitromin (Nt) and 8-Azaguanine (Az) were administered on developing eggs for the observation of the influence of these antitumor agents on the general growth and the Glutathione metabolism of chick embryos. Quantitative determination of Glutathione was done by the iodine method. Though both Nt and Az were highly toxic on chick embryos, the toxicity of Az was much higher than that of Nt. A number of embryos died in an early stage among the group received the administration of Az, while deaths were observed mostly in the latter half of hatching among the group received Nt. Some embryos of malformation were observed among the eggs received 0.05 mg of Az, while no such malformation was recognized among the eggs received Nt. Eggs received Nt showed no remarkable change in the Glutathione concentration of the liver, while the eggs showed a remarkable elevation in the middle stage of hatching when Az was administered. Glutathione concentration of muscles showed an evident elevation in either case of the administration of Nt or Az but in this case too, the elevation which followed Az was much higher than that of Nt. Glutathione concentrations of both the eyeball and the brain showed no remarkablechange by Nt administration, while they showed an elevation by the administration of Az.
Hypotensive agents such as Hexamethonium bromide (C6), Tetraethylammonium bromide (TEA), Chlorothiazide (Chit), Hydralazine (Ap), Sodium 5, 5 diethylbarbiturate (Bar), Reserpine (Res) were administered on rabbits by intravenous injection for the observation of their respective influence on the metabolism of serum electrolytes like K, Na, Mg and Ca. Serum K concentration showed a lowering tendency by the administration of TEA, Chlt, Ap and Bar, while it showed an increase by C6. In the case of the administration of Res, there was a biphasic elevation in a dose of 5 mg/kg and a lowering when the dose was 10 mg/kg. Na concentration of the serum showed and increasing tendency by the administration of C6, TEA and Res, while it showed a lowering by Chit and the administration of Bar produced no remarkable change. In the case of Ap, there was a temporary mild elevation immediately after administration but it was lowered thereafter. Serum Ca concentration showed an increasing tendency by the administration of C6, TEA and Chlt, while it was lowered by Ap and Res, but Ca concentration was scarcely influenced by the administration of Bar. Serum Mg concentration showed a lowering tendency by the admistration of Ap and Res, while by the administration of C6, it showed a lowering tendency after a temporary elevation. In the case of Chit and Bar administration, however, no appreciable influence was recognized on the concentration of serum Mg. In short, the administration of a hypotensive agent produced a remarkable influence on the metabolism of serum electrolytes. Especially, the changes observed on K was most remarkable being influenced by all the drugs tested in the present study.
In the bronchus tree of human being, a small branch of bronchus can be recognizied under Bronchus media. This small bronchus is named as Br. cardiacus or Br. basalis medialis in the International Terminology of Anatomy. It is, however, not lobulating indepenently in human being. While, the same in mammalian animals is evidently lobulating and is named as Lobus infracardiacus or Lobus intermedius. Stated in the following are the findings of the study of the comparative anatomy of Br. infracardiacus contained in the Lobus infracardiacus on a number of mammalian animals. 1. Insectiva, Rodentia, Carnivora, Artiodactyla and Cercopithecus of Primates have an independent Lobus infracardiacus containing Br. cardiacus, while in the human being, Br. cardiacus is embedded in the Lobus inferior of the right lung. 2. Br. cardiacus of the human being starts from the trunk of Br. inferior with an angle of approximately 90°inwardly against Br. media, so that, it corresponds to a parabronchus. In other animals too, as it develops from the inside with an angle of 60-95°, it is a parabronchus. 3. The position of the artery which accompanies Br. infracardiacus is different in each animals, and this difference influences on the locality of the formation of Lobus cardiacus. 4. Br. cardiacus of the human being resembles to other of other mammalian animals but differs on the point that it does not lobulate. This probably is due to the narrowing of the mediastinal cavity caused cy the standing up of the human being and then it caused the embeding of Br. cardicaus in the Lobus inferior of the right lung.
The influences of p-methylphenyl hydrazine (MPH), 1-isonicotinyl-2-isopropyl hydrazine (IIH) and isonicotinic acid hydrazine (INH) on the adrenaline- and tyramine-action to the rabbit ear vessel were studied. 1) The effects of tyramine on the rabbit ear blood vessel after pretreatment of MPH or IIH which are potent inhibitors of monoamine oxidase, were potentiated, but after pretreatment of INH which is a potent inhibitor of diamine oxidase, were not altered. 2) The effects of adrenaline on the rabbit ear blood vessel after pretreatment of MPH, IIH or INH were not potentiated. 3) The administration of MPH, IIH or INH to the rabbit ear blood vessel caused dilation.
Surveys were made on the patients of gastric cancer chiefly by the histopathological investigations covering the period from the time of their surgical treatment to the time of their death by recurrence. Surgical materials were obtained from the 106 gastric cancer patients received gastrectomy during the 4 years and 2 months period from April 1956 to May 1960 in the Surgical Department of Showa Medical School, and pathoanatomical materials were collected from the 22 autopsy cases of the patients died of recurrence. In most of the 106 cases, the regional gastric lymphnodes were cleaned out extensively at the time of operation. Stated in the following are the results obtained from the surveys: 1. Histologically, the positive rate of lymphatic metastasis was 72.6% at the time of operation. 2. The highest positive rate of this lymphatic metastasis was observd on the cancers formed on the gastric horn (6, 7) of the lesser curvature, cardiac region (e), pylous (2, 4) and the greater curvature (0, 1) . 3. No appreciable parallelism was observed between the positive rate of lymphatic metastasis and the size or the macroscopic type of the cancer. 4. It paralleled well, however, with the penerability of cancer cells into the gastric wall. 5. As for the relationship between the histological types of cancer and the positive rate of lymphatic metastasis, the rate was high in the order listed: colloid cancer, medullary canncerr, withering cancer and the cancer of the mixed type. 6. Prognosis of the patient is dependent on the penerability of the cancer cells into the gastric wall, positive rate of lymphatic metastasis and the local findings of the cancer cell foci. 7. Of autopsy findings of recurrent cases, local recurrence were seen in a high percentage indicating the necessity of extensive exision and combined excision. 8. Most cases of the metastasis into the visceral parenchyma were the cases of adenocarcinoma. On the contrary, withering cancer was proved to be characterized by continuous infiltration. These findings are important for the selection of the techniques to be employed at the time of operations.
Employing a total of 499 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, observations were made on the changes produced in the pulmonary lesions in relation to the presence or absence of and the form of bronchiectasis complication. Pathological investigations were made, further, on various factors participating in the development of bronchiectasis complication on the 68 cases of pulmonary resection out of the above mentioned 499. Distribution of ectasis was numerouns especially on B1 and B2, followed by B6 on the right and B3, B4, B5 and B6 on the left side in the order listed. Classification proposed by the committee of chemotherapy for tuberculosis, Ministry of Education (CCT) showed no correlation to the kind, the time started and the duration of chemotherapy employed. Only a small number of strong bronchiectasis were found among the patients who responded to the chemotherapy with the diminish of lesions or the disappearance of cavity on X-ray pictures, while were a number of strong bronchiectasis among the patients with persisting cavity. A larger number of bronchiectasis were recognized among the patients of T and Kd groups and those having fibrotic lesions without cavity than among the patients having infiltrative lesions without cavity. In the majority, the bronchiectasis observed was like a rod in shape. As the result of pathological investigation made on the excised lung, it was found that the ectasis of the douche or the segmental bronchus is closely related to the cavity and other ectasis to the apneumatic lung. Both strong and weak ectasis are caused by the same factors of only quantitative difference. Condensation, clearance, cicatrization and caseation of the cavity were observed slightly more in number among the patients with weak ectasis being in good agreement with X-ray findings. In many cases of the patients with strong bronchiectasis, the ectasis of the douche bronchus exists together with ectasis of other bronchi, while in case of weak bronchiectasis, involvement of the ectasis other than douche bronchus is rare.
In order to observe pulmonary tuberculosis from the standpoint of functions, pulmonary lesions, pleural thickening, bronchograms and electrocardiograms were investigated making comparisons with the general standard vital capacity and at the same time pathological surveys were made on the causes of death. A total of 435 cases including 7 fatal cases were selected. They had been under observation for a period of 1 year and had not received any surgical treatment for additional 1 year being under chemotherapy alone. Evident parallel relationship was observed between the %VC and the classification of the disease types proposed by the American National Tuberculosis Association (NTA) when the clinical symptoms of the patients became stable by the treatment continued for 1 year. %VC of moderate cases (NTA) showed a remarkable increase during an observation period of 1 year and advanced cases (NTA) with VC over 80% followed a favourable clinical course. Factors causing this increase in %VC were found to be the effect of chemotherapy on the patients of exudative and cheesy infiltrative (Gakken), disappearance and diminish of the cavity, increase in the body weight, and early treatment. As for the relationship of %VC and pleural thickening, there was a close correlation in either case of the thickening of single side or both sides when the thickening was advanced. While, no distinct correlation was observed between %VC and bronchiectasis except the presence of lowering tendency among the patients with strong ectasis. The relationship of %VC and electrocardiogram, moreover, the patients who showed stronger lowering in %VC, in most cases, showed stronger right ventricular hypertrophy. Autopsy findings showed that the death causes were the penumonia and the asphyxia caused by haemoptysis complicated in the patients with poor pulmonary functions. In view of the findings stated above, an emphasis was made on the importance of the observation of pulmonary functions for the observation of the clinical course of pulmonary tuberculosis patients aside from the X-ray observation of the tuberculous lesions.
There are varying kinds of complications which develop after pneumonectomy. Stated in the present paper are the findings of the pathological investigation of an autopsy case who had developed vascular miliary tuberculosis, pericarditis and bilateral cheesy and fibrinous inflammation of the pleura following the application of the complementary thoracoplasty after receiving the left side total pneumonectomy on account of the presence of cavity in the left upper lobe and capsular cheesy focus in the other lobe. It was not feasible to clarify, however, whether this serositis developed as a part of the vascular dissipation or the transmission first from the intrathoracic dissipation at the time of operation to the left side pleuritis and then to the right side and further to the pericarditis. Biopsy findings of the liver are considered to indicate the initial stage of vascular dissipation.