Serum calcium (Ca) levels of 2000 samples (690 cases) throughout pregnancy, labor and puerperium were determined by the Clark-Collip method. In the present stadies, some interesting results were obtained. 1. Generally speaking, serum Ca levels of pregnant women were in lower levels than those of nonpregnant, and they were the lowest in the eighth month. 2. They were getting lower during labor and got the lowest levels at 2 hours after delivery. 3. There was no significant difference in levels of serum Ca between term deliveries and overterm. 4. Cord serum Ca showed higher levels than maternal serum Ca, and there was a correlation between the former and the latter. 5. There was no difference between serum Ca levels in umbilical artey and umbilical vein. 6. Not only maternal but umbilical serum Ca levels had no correlation with body weight of the new born. 7. The decrease of serum Ca in pregnancy was covered a little by administration of Ca agents. 8. The legs-cramp-symdrome during pregnancy got well by drugging calcium. 9. There was no difference in levels of serum Ca between normal pregnancy and threatened abortion. 10. The cases of excessive vomitting during pregnancy showed the same levels as in normal pregnancy, but serum Ca levels of the severe toxemia of pregnancy were decreased definitely. 11. Serum Ca levels were decreased after Cesarian section as after gynecological operations.
The present work was done in order to examine the metabolism in pregnants, especially in those suffering from gestational toxicosis, and the influence of puerperal work on it, and in addition, to study its effect on fetus. The blood levels of pyruvic acid and α-ketoglutaric acid were determined simultaneously by enzymological methods with the following results. The blood levels of pyruvic acid and α-ketoglutaric acid were 0.559±0.038 and 0.163±0.005 mg/dl in healthy non-pregnants. They were both higher in pregnants. The pyruvic acid level was slightly higher at delivery than during pregnancy, but the α-ketoglutaric acid level did not change at delivery. They showed almost the same levels in normal delivery, bruch extraction and clamp delivery. Both levels returned nearly to the range of healthy non-pregnant women about a month after childbirth. They were both higher in the women with severe lochia, but the α-ketoglutaric acid level was slightly lower in those with slight lochia. Both pyruviate and α-ketoglutarate levels were high in the pregnants with severe gestational toxicosis. They remained high during childbed in the women with severe gestational toxicosis in whom they had been high. They were lower in umbilical blood than in mother's. They did not vary with the time needed for delivery and the severity of hemorrhage.
In order to cause hemolysis, 0.5 ml/kg of phenylhydrazine was injected subcutaneously into rabbits every three days at a concentration of 2%, 4% and 8%, respectively. They were divided into acute, subacute and chronic groups according to the hematological changes. The rabbits were then sacrified and the thyroid glands were examined histologically. 1. Hematological findings: There was an acute drop in both red blood cells and hemoglobin right after administration of phenylhydrazine, while, on the contrary a marked increase in number of reticulocytes was noted. 2. Histological findings of thyroids : a. Acute group: Mild dilatation of veins, congestion and edema were found in the interstitial tissue. The parenchyma showed conspicuous degeneration of follicular epithelia, desquamation, destruction and necrosis. b. Subacute group: The interstitium demonstrated marked changes following circulatory disturbance and mild fibrosis. The parencyma became atrophic, and there were figures of change in amount of colloid. c. Chronic group: Fibrotic changes were more remarkable than the subacute group. The parenchyma revealed diffuse atrophy of follicles and disappearance of colloid. 3. The above findings suggest that degenerative changes were induced by hypoxia following hemolytic anemia. There is also a possibility of the toxicity of phenylhyrazine causing degeneration of follicular epithelia.