The action potential in ureter of guinea pig is consisted of two components, i. e. slow potential and oscillating spike potentials, which superimposes on the initial part of the former. High temperature causes to decrease the number of spike potentials and their amplitude, and finally they disappeared in long invasion of high temperature. The spike component is also rapidly abolished in Ca _??_ free environment. Adding of excess of Ca _??_ to the normal environment increases the number of spike potentials at first and then decreases it gradually untill it attain its initial number. After vanishing of spike oscillation induced by high temperature, if excess of Ca _??_ is added to the environment, spike potentials reappear. Such an effect of Ca _??_ does not last for long time. If the temperature is raised above 39°-40°C, Ca _??_ loses such an effect to gain spike potential. As many investigator reported, there are two stable states of calcium in the excitable membrane i. e. free and bounded. Between them, following relationship might exist. free Ca _??_→← bounded Ca Decrease or increase of free calcium would cause to shift the equilibrium point of the calcium either to bounded Ca side or to free Ca side. Change of the temperature may cause also shift of equilibrium point. From such speculation, reciprocal change of calcium between two situations is supposed to be a underlying mechanism to explain the appearance of oscillatory spike potentials and the effect of Ca and temperature on them.
Sixteen rats were used for this study. In thirteen animals atrophy of the skeletal muscles of the left hind leg were induced by the procedure of neurotomy in the sciatic nerve of the same side. Acetoacetic acid levels in the atrophied side were compared with the unatrophid side. Coleman's results in the dystrophied mouse revealed the markedly elevated levels of acetoacetic acid. The same results were obtained in our atrophied cases, but the degree of the elevation of acetoacetic acid was not so marked as seen in Coleman's dystophied cases. These results might be assumed the biochemical difference between neutrotic atrophy and myopathic atrophy.
The aged patients over 60 years-old who were undergone major operations were examined on the renal function pre-and post-operatively. The younger age groups ranging from 20 to 40 years old were examined as control cases. 1) More post operative complications of the respiratory tract were seen in the aged. 2) Water-retention developed easily in the aged patients after major operation. 3) Less active and longer continuing catabolism was seen in the aged. 4) Renal hypofunction was generally pre-existed and remarkably exaggerated postoperatively. It was due to arteriosclerosis which is characteristic in the aged patients. Acute renal failure was developed easily, accompanied by circulatory disturbance. 5) Concentration of the serum Na and K stayed within normal limit post-operatively in both age groups. Even in the cases of remarkable renal hypof unction, Na and K seldom changed' showing marked contrast to the level of NPN and BUN. 6) Renal function of the aged patients well reflected in the osmolality of the serum and the urine after both 14 hours dry test and 15 minutes result of intravenous P. S. P. test Renal protection should be carried out in the pre-oparative cases with urine osmolality below 800 mOsm. by 14 hours dry test and below 2.5 of U/P Ratio. 7) Osmotic diuretica was effective to keep the fluid-balance in the post-operative aged patients having renal hypo-function and it would prevent from developing acute renal failure.
From the spinal cord, one can lead off the electrical activity which is characterized as low frequency and low amplitude varying potentials. We call these potentials as the Spinal Electrogram. A synchronization of these electrical activities was evoked by the injection of drugs such as. tubocurarine and succinylcholine. The synchronized wave has a high amplitude (100-120μV) and low frequency (5-9c/s) . The duration of the wave was between four and eight seconds. Hypoxia also produced a synchronization of SEG. The synchronization of SEG occured spontaneously by the administration of tubocurarine chloride (2 mg/kg) and succinylcholine (0.6 mg/kg) and also frequently evoked by the stimulation of dorsal root under these drugs. The synchronized SEG was recorded from the relative broad areas, 2 to 3 segments, in the spinal cord. The dorsal root stimulation modified the rhythm. The disruption, resetting and termination of the rhythm were obserbed. It is concluded that the synchronization of SEG might be related with the internuncialneuron's activity which was enhanced by drugs.
1. The visco-elastic curve showed a typical S-type curve which was shown by the other smooth muscle organs. 2. The guinea-pig gallbladder was highly extensible than the rabbit bladder. 3. The significance of these properties of gallbladder in guinea-pig was discussed in relation to a specific structure in the Oddi's sphincter area of the guinea-pig.
The low molecular weight dextran (L. M. D) has recently been developed for a wide clinical use in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock as a substitute for the blood when it is notavailable. The influence of L. M. D to the hematological findings was investigated and the following results and conclusions were obtained. 1. L. M. D. produced plasma volume expansion for only an hour or so following the inf ussion. 2. L. M. D. was inferior to mannitol in regard to compulsory diuretic effects. 3. L. M. D. prolonged the bleeding time, however, its effects on the coagulation system still remained to be studied further. 4. The peripheral circulation appeared to be favorably influenced by L. M. D. 5. Rapid infusion of L. M. D. in patients with normovolemia might cause circul-atory overload. 6. After infusion of L. M. D., it is excreted earlier and the specific gravity of the urine remarkably increased, while excretion of Na. K, and Cl. decreased.
The patient, a 60-year-old male, who had history of bronchial asthma was admitted for gastrectomy with a diagnosis of gastric perforation. Atropine sulphate (0.25 mg) was administered intravenously for premedication. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental 300 mg and maintained with nitrous oxide, oxygen and fluothane (0.5 per cent) in a semiclosed system. Forty miligram of succinylcholine was administered prior to tracheal intubation. Twenty miligram of succinylcholine and 28 mg of mylaxen was used for muscle relaxation. The patient's lungs became slight difficult to ventilate 45 minutes after starting of the operation. Wheezing appeared in both lung fields, but neither secretions nor any anatomicall abnormalities were seen. It was diagnosed as bronchospam. Anesthesia was persisted in this manner until the end of the operation. Immediatly after the surgery 250 mg of neophylline was administered intravenously, the wheezings disappeared and the patient's lungs became clear.
The first report of two cases of bilobed gallbladder confirmed by autopsy in Japan was presented. The first case, 69 years old male, was complicated with cholecystitis. The second case, 66 years old female, had cholelithiasis and carcinoma of the bile duct. Anatomically, the cases seemed to belong to Groendijk's septum type and diverticular type of vesica fellea divisa. There were no clinical signs or symptoms attributable to the presence of these anomaly.