The present study was performed in rabbits with atrophic kidneys produced experimentally by wrapping the left kidney with gauze and followed four weeks later by nephrectomy of the right kidney. Samples of blood were drawn periodically from these animals with the remaining left kidney for determination of serum urea-nitrogen, creatine, potassium, sodium and chloride. All these parameters reveal changes remarkably analogous to those seen in clinical cases of chronic renal insufficiency. The blood pressure showed an increase, but remained within the normal limits. The animals also experienced a weigeh gain. Principal histopathologic findings noted in the heart of animals which were sacrificed at 1 to 2 months of renal atrophy included : degeneration of the myocardium and edema of the interstitium. From the third month of renal atrophy onward, myocardial hypertrophy, degeneration, loss of cross striation, diffuse fibrosis of the intermuscular interstitium and perivascular fibrosis especially of small blood vessels were noted to develop. After 7 months of renal atrophy, the heart exhibited pronounced diffuse interstitial fibrosis and focal pen-vascular fibrosis began to involve adjoining areas of the myocardium, while the myocardial hypertrophy and degeneration was comparable to animals with 6 months or less of renal atrophy. PAS stain-positive granules were demonstrable in areas of cardiac myocytes coincid-ing with their cross striation, even in the initial stages of renal atrophy, thus indicating the development of myocardial pathology from the earliest stages. Interrelations were not-ed to exist between the histopathologic changes of the heart and the changes of the various serum chemistries, and unguestionably the progression of these changes had a bearing on renal function. The pathologic findings of the myocardium described above were analogous to those noted in autopsied clinical cases of chronic renal insufficiency.
The known funcitons of liver are so numerous that the number of possible liver function tests is also very large. However, several tests which seemed closely connected to histological findings and to mechanism of radioisotope utilization after liver irradiation were performed in experimental animals. Kupffer cell function was able to study which was a special tests of radiology. Amounts of some enzymes and dye were measured in serum as well as in the liver. Results of these tests including BSP, transaminase, Au-colloid and alkaline phosphatase were correlated well to radiation hyperemia or congestion in early stage, and degenerative changes in succeeding stage of irradiation. As for the cell element, hepatic cell, Kupffer cell, epithel of : cholangiolus, and capillary seemed to be the target of each corresponding tests.
It was reported that axons originated from 5-HT or NA containing neurons in brain stem especially medulla ended in spinal cord and that both 5 HT and NA influenced on spinal reflex. However it was also reported that these compounds exerted the inhibitory effect on spinal reflex and the excitatory effect on motoneuron. In present study, it was founded that these inhibitory and excitatory actions of 5-HTP and DOPA could be separated by the applied concentrations of these compounds. The low concentrations of DOPA and 5-HTP augmented the spinal reflex discharges of frog without changing dorsal root potential, while the higher concentrations of these drugs inhibited reflex discharges reducing dorsal root potential. These effects last for more than 2 hours. The facilitatory and inhibitory effects by DOPA were observed in the spinal reflex discharges of short latency, while the spinal reflex with long latency was only responded to increase the duration of discharges by large doses of DOPA. From these results the followings were postulated that 1) DOPA and 5-HTP depolarized both presynaptic nerve terminals and post synaptic membrane. 2) The depolarization of the nerve terminals decreased the action potential of nerve terminals and hence decreased the release of transmitter. As a result, spinal reflex was inhibited. If depolarization of motoneuron induced by these compounds was under the thresholdal membrane potential, spinal reflex should be facilitated. In this regard, the facilitatory and inhibitory effects were separated by applied doses of these compounds.
In the current 15 years, the author experienced 58 patients who died of bronchial asthma (or which 27 were subjected to mortem examination) in the 1 st Department of Internal Medicine of School of Medicine, Showa University. The overall mortality was 1.5%. The asthmatic deaths were more frequent in males and senile people; 45 cases were older than 40, while 13 were younger. The mortality due to asthma in the patients who were older than 40 years of age was 3.54%, while it was 0.52% in younger ones. The mortality due to asthma among the patients whose onset were older than 40 years was 6.83% and it was 1.48% in the patients with younger years of onset. The asthmatic deaths were shared appoximately half and half by the patients with extrinsic type and intrinsic one. In view of the fact, however, the number of patients with extrinsic type was much greater than that of intrinsic type, it may be chaimed that the death which asthma is more attributable to intrinsic factors than to the extrinsic ones. As the direct cause of death, suffocation was detected in 52%. To these patients with unhappy outcome, it was learned that moderated to large amout of steroid had been administered and evident adrenal atrophy was detected in 18 out of 27 autopsied. Based on the statistics published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare on the causes of deaths, it was learned that the deaths with asthma have so far been in a decreasing trend in parallel with the popularization of steroids, and also that transient increase of it was almost unexceptionally recognized in the years of rampant prevalence of influenza. Deaths with asthma showed decreasing trends in most classes of age, but the aeg between 5 and 14 (particulary 10 to 14) was found to be increasingly vulnerable to this disease in current years. Concerned to the causes of this trend, the author speculated the overuse of pressurized aerosols containing sympathometics, considering the same relation between the grow and down tendency of the mortality of younger asthmatics and the consumed dose of pressuried aerosols, as in United Kingdom. In view of the above-mentioned studies, the author think that steroids may be claimed to be rather contributory than detrimental to treatment of asthma, if their indication are correctly selected, based on the principle that the steroid should not be used if the symptoms appear hopefully curable by mean of other ronline remedies.
The development of the muscle fiber diameter by 190 specimens of the m. rectus abdominis in the human growth stage was examined and compared with that of the other muscles and of the muscle in adult. A micropattern analyzer was used in measurement of muscle fiber diameter in the stained section. The mean value of diameter was the smallest in 1 year old among the all age levels examined, but it increases along with age, reaching the highest value at 18-19 years old by male and at 16-18 years old by female. Comparing the diameter of muscle fiber of this muscle with that of the other muscles, we observed that this muscle showed similar value of diameter to the diaphragm in lower age and to the upper extremity muscle above 9 year old. And compared the muscle fiber diameter of this muscle of the youth in the growth stage with that of the adult, we found that the diameter of the youth was smaller than that of the adult by male and the diameter in the case of the age levels covering from 16 to 18 was the largest throughout all the age levels of the female, in which that of the nulli-parous corresponded to that of 11-15 years old and the parous to 8-10 years old. The differ-ence of diameters between male and female was discernible in 1-7 and 15-19 years old, and was not seen in 8-14 years old. These findings suggest that the developmental pattern of the muscle fiber in the growth stage of this muscle differs from that of the other muscles and that the enlargement factor of muscle fiber of this muscle differ from that of the adult. And also, these findings show that the difference between the diameter in the case of the both sexes observed before the secondary sex character appeared.
To assess the in vitro effect of various steroidal antiinflammatory agents, the biosyn-thetic activity of acid mucopolysaccharide was examined in the pig leg synovial membrane, in which the radioactive mucopolysaccharide was extracted and determined after the in-cubation with 13C-glucose. The results were as follows: 1. The dose of 50% inhibition was proved to be 0.2 mg/ml of dexamethasone disodium phosphate, while the corresponding dose of prednisolone sodium hemisuccinate was 0.5 mg/m1-0.6 mg/ml. 2. Anti-inflammatory effect of a steroid varied according to its different water soluble derivatives. Thus, the drug concentration, in which the acid mucopolysaccharide synthesis was inhibited to 50%, was 0.18 mg/ml for dexamethasone disodium phosphate, while it was 1.23 mg/ml for dexamethasone sodium sulfate. 3. Acetylsalicylic acid was found not to show any appreciable inhibitory effect. 4. The results of preincubation indicated that prednisolone inhibited the biosynthesis of acid mucopolysaccharides to a similar extent as in the control. In contrast, dexametha-sone rather enhanced the biosynthesis of acid mucopolysaccharides, giving rise to the so-called “rebound phenomenon ”. 5. Among steroidal anti-inflammatory preparations, only water soluble ones were de-monstrated to be nearly equipotent with the preparations for per oral administration cur-rently in wide use.
Zonal necrosis frequently occurs when the liver is subjected to a severe toxic stress. Though coagulation necrosis usually occurs under such circumstances, colliquative necrosis in a small number of cases should not be overlooked. A pathological study was therefore undertaken on the process in the liver from colliquative changes to colliquative necrosis in-duced by injecting saponin and hydroxylamin hydrochloride subcutaneously in a rabbit. Colliquative necrosis was thus produced in radiating form along the sinusoid connect-ing the central and the peripheral vein. Such colliquative necrosis in the radiation form was probably related to hemolytic anemic hypoxemia induced by hydroxylamin and saponin.
A 70 aged woman who had been suffered from recurrent spontaneous hypoglycemic attack proved massive hepatoma (3770 gr) by clinical study and autopsy. Her metabolic exermination, blood glucose lacked its normal rise to glucagons stimmulation, exceed glucose was needed to regulated normal blood glucose level on intravenous glucose infusion test. These facts supposed to be caused by decreased glycogen volume among served liver and over-utilization of glucose due to extensive growth of the massive hepatoma. This mechanism can cause serious spontaneous hypoglycemic attack.