Apoptosis is one type of cell death characterized morphologically by nuclear condensation and shrinkage of cell bodies. Thus, it is completely different from necrosis in features. Recently, it is suggested that apoptosis occurs in some neurodegenerative diseases of childhood as well as adulthood. Therefore, it is very important to reveal mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis. To the end, it is expected that new therapies will be developed to prevent the progress of neurodegenerative diseases. Based on such expectation, this symposium was organized to present recent progress in neuronal apoptosis research.