日本植物病理学会報
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
18 巻 , 3-4 号
選択された号の論文の12件中1~12を表示しています
  • 水本 晋
    1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 97-101
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. 本研究はハンノキ以下13種の廣葉樹材の, ヒイロタケ以下5種の腐朽菌に對する耐朽力について比較檢討したものである。
    2. 供試材片の耐朽力はクリ及びケヤキの心材が最も強く, ソメイヨシノ及びハンノキの邊材が最も弱かつた。
    3. 供試菌中, 最も強い腐朽力を示したのはヒイロタケであつて, アラゲカハラタケこれに次ぎ, スエヒロタケは最も弱かつた。
  • 山本 和太郎
    1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 102-106
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The microscopic investigations were carried out on the morphological difference of external mycelium between the saprophytic and parasitic species of the sooty mould fungi belonging to the Meliolaceae (Perisporiaceae), Capnodiaceae, Microthyriaceae and Deuteromycetes. These results are as follows:
    1. In the parasitic species belonging to Meliola, Meliolina, Irene, Irenina, Irenopsis and Amazonia of the Meliolaceae, to Balladyna of the Capnodiaceae, and to Asterina, Parasterina, Lembosia and Morenoella of the Microthyriaceae, the external mycelium is filamentous, straight walled, with hyphopodia or knot cells, and produces reticulate or velvety, small colonies scattering on the surface of the host plants.
    2. In the saprophytic species belonging to Capnodium, Neocapnodium, Hypocapnodium, Capnophaeum, Scorias, Chaetoscorias, Chaetothyrium, Aithaloderma, Limacinia, Phaeosaccardinula and Triposporiopsis of the Capnodiaceae, to Perisporina, Dimerium, Dimerina and Phaeostigme of the Meliolaceae, and to Triposporium, Microxyphium and Caldariomyces of the Deuteromycetes, the external mycelium is dematioid, mucilaginous, without hyphopodia or knot cells, and produces membranous or velvety, large colonies covering over the upper surface of the host plants.
    3. The presence or the absence of the hyphopodia or knot cells formed on the external mycelium are an important characteristic to distinguish the parasitic from saprophytic species. Almost all of the examined parasitic species have hyphopodia, and rarely knot cells. The hyphopodia are usually definite in shape as well as in arrangement in each species, but in Meliolina octospora these are very few in number, indefinite in arrangement, more or less irregular in shape.
    4. The results of histological studies of the host tissue infected with parasitic sooty moulds reveal that nearly all the species produce the penetrating hyphae from the hyphopodia, and that the hyphae send haustoria into the epidermal or rarely subepidermal cells. But some species of the Meliolaceae do not produce the haustoria, and Meliolina octospora produce intercellular hyphae from the hyphopodia, and the hyphae send haustoria into the mesophyll cells. The saprophytic species do not produce the haustoria and also the infection hyphae from the external mycelium.
    5. Very similar to powdery mildew fungi in parasitism, the parasitic sooty mould fungi are considered as obligate parasites, and saprophytic ones are considered as obligate saprophytes. These obligate parasites and saprophytes are heterogeneously contained in the Meliolaceae and Capnodiaceae respectively. As regards to the classification of these families from the parasitical point of view, the present author proposes that the obligate parasites having hyphopodia or knot cells on the external mycelium should belong to the Meliolaceae, and that the obligate saprophytes without hyphopodia or knot cells should belong to the Capnodiaceae, and that the Meliolaceae should be divided into the two subfamilies, the Melioleae and Meliolineae, according to the position where haustoria are produced, as the Erysiphaceae is divided into the two subfamilies, the Erysipheae and Phyllactinieae.
  • 山本 昌木
    1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 107-108
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    ハトムギ健全種子に黒穗病菌 (Ustilago coici) の接種を行つて發病させたものと健全なものとを收穫後分析しその一般成分を比較した。
    黒穗罹病種子は健全種子に比較して粗蛋白質, 粗纎維, 水分の占める率が高く, 澱粉, 粗灰分, 粗脂肪の含有率は低い。蛋白態窒素はやや少いがアンモニヤ態窒素, アミノ態窒素には大差を認める事が出來ない。健病兩者共葉は莖よりも, また上部のものは下部のものに比し總窒素の占める割合は大である。病植物葉の總窒素の割合は健全植物のそれに比し小さく, 病植物莖の總窒素の含有率は健全植物の夫よりも高い。炭水化物は罹病種子, 罹病植物葉, 又健病兩植物ともに下部葉の方が健全種子, 健全植物葉, 及び上部葉よりそれぞれ大であつた。病種子中アルカロイドの存在は確でない。
  • 淺田 泰次, 赤井 重恭
    1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 109-112
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. 本論文は珪酸施用量を異にした水稻品種龜治並に曲玉の胡麻葉枯病感受性變化を觀察した。
    2. 罹病性品種曲玉は珪酸施用量と共に感受性を多少減じたが, 抵抗性品種龜治では殆んど變化がない。
    3. 珪酸施用は曲玉に於ては, 貫穿抵抗, 葉の珪質化, 體内全珪酸量等の機械的性質を多少良好にするようである。併し龜治に於ては餘り變化を與えない。即ち龜治に於てはある程度の珪酸を吸收した場合には, それ以上を要求しないもののようである。
    4. 兩品種共珪酸施用は葉の細胞液滲透壓, 搾汁中での病原菌分生胞子の發芽等には殆ど影響を與えない。
    5. 珪酸施用は兩品種葉の Catalase の活性を大にする。而して龜治の酵素作用は曲玉のそれよりも大である。併し感受性との關係は認め難い。
  • 高橋 實
    1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 113-118
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the present paper the writer has treated the taxonomical studies of seven species of Pythium causing damping-off disease of various crop seedlings. The fungi tested are as follows: Pythium aphanidermatum isolated from rotten fruits and from water of the drainage; Pythium deBaryanum isolated from diseased cucumber seedlings; P. vexans isolated from diseased tomato seedlings; P. ultimum isolated from wilted Hibiscus seedlings; P. monospermum isolated from water; P. zingiberum sp. nov. isolated from rotten roots of ginger; and P. Hemmianum sp. nov. isolated from wilted sponge-gourd seedlings (Luffa cylindrica).
    The sporangium formation is found abundantly in Pythium aphanidermatum and P. monospermum, but not in P. ultimum, P. deBaryanum and P. vexans. It is difficult to make clear the difference between P. ultimum and P. deBaryanum by the characters of sexual organs. In Pythium ultimum, however, one antheridium arising usually from oogonial stalk immediately below the oogonium, attaches to an oogonium, and in Pythium deBaryanum one to three androgenus antheridia attach usually to an oogonium.
    Butler described that antheridium of Pythium vexans was attached to an oogonium with its broad base. In my observations of P. vexans, such figures were not found, and no sporangium and few conidia were obtained.
    A new species of Pythium attacking roots of ginger was described as a new species under the name of Pythium zingiberum. It forms numerous oogonia and few conidia on agar culture. Sporangia are filamentous or irregularly inflated and are rarely formed. The oospore wall is smooth and usually filling the oogonium. Antheridia are usually diclinous, and wrap around the oogonium with antheridial branches.
    A Pythium isolated from wilted sponge-gourd seedlings was also studied. It forms no sporangia and only a few sexual organs, but numerous conidia are formed. The writer gave the name of Pythium Hemmianum to the present fungus as a new species in memory of the sixty first birthday of Dr. Takewo HEMMI.
  • 倉田 浩, 栗林 數衞
    1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 119-121
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 赤井 重恭, 竹内 高明
    1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 122-124
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. 本報告に於ては Pythium ultimum, Fusarium sp., 及び Rhizoctonia sp. の3菌を使用して, アカマツ, クロマツ, スギ, 及びヒノキの稚苗に對する病原性に就いて記述した。
    2. 供試菌中 Rhizoctonia 菌の病原性が最も強く, Fusarium 菌の夫が最も弱い。尚播種後3ケ月餘りを經過した苗に對しては, 3菌共それ等を侵害する力がない。
    3. アカマツ種子の發芽に及ぼす影響は, 子苗に於ける場合と同樣, Rhizoctonia 菌が最も強くその發芽を阻害し, Fusarium 菌が最も弱い。
    4. 土壤濕度が高い場合には發病が多かつた。アカマツ子苗に就いての實驗では, 過濕状態に於て Rhizoctonia 菌は90%以上の發病を基因したが, 乾燥状態では約19%に過ぎなかつた。而して乾燥状態の場合, Fusarium菌は全く發病を基因しない。
  • 松浦 義
    1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 125-127
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Toyama Agricultural Experiment Station reported that it was very effective for control of Sclerotinia rot of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) to mow the tops of the vetch in autumn. The writer made field tests to confirm the result.
    When the top of vetch plants was cut off with scissors and the plant fragments were carefully romoved from the plots, the number of affected plants was less, giving higher yield, than the untreated plots. But when the top of vetch was mowed with mower or specially designed sickle, the development of the disease was as much or more severe, as compared with the check. The explanation is that the cutting fragments remained in the plots may serve as a nourishing substratum for the fungus, which become vigorous enough to pass over to the vetch plants.
  • 1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 132-145
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 145-152
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 152-159
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1954 年 18 巻 3-4 号 p. 159-190
    発行日: 1954/08/30
    公開日: 2009/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー
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