日本植物病理学会報
Online ISSN : 1882-0484
Print ISSN : 0031-9473
ISSN-L : 0031-9473
23 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
  • 田杉 平司, 茂木 静夫
    1958 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 159-164
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2009/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    大豆品種の本病に対する抵抗性の差異は比較的明瞭である。本病病原菌を大豆に接種する場合好適な条件下では,罹病性品種は接種後約1週間で病斑を認めることができる。然し抵抗性品種では肉眼で観察され得る程度の病斑を形成しないのが普通である。その原因として組織的な抵抗現象が見られた。そこで,抵抗性並に罹病性品種間における組織変化の比較及び同一品種内における組織の成熟度による差異を比較検討したので,その結果をここに報告する。
  • 赤井 重恭, 獅山 慈孝, 江川 宏
    1958 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 165-168
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2009/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the present paper, the writers reported the change of free amino acid content in rice plants which were cultured in nutrient solution containing following sources of nitrogen: aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, and (NH4)2SO4 as a control. As shown in Table 3, the content of free amino acid in the rice plants cultured with amino acid surpassed that of the control, and the greatest amount of free amino acid was found in the plants cultured with aspartic acid. Thus the plants may be arranged in the following decreasing order of amino acid content: plants cultured with aspartic acid>glutamic acid >glycine>cystine>(NH4)2SO4 (control).
    Similar to the results reported in the previous paper, the infection of the causal fungus to the rice plants resulted the decreased of the free amino acid content in leaves, especially of the dibasic amino acid when measured 6 days after the inoculation.
    There was no significant difference between the plants cultured with amino acid and the control with respect to the number of spots that appeared after inoculation. However, a correlation was found between the amino acid content in leaves and the length of spots which was measured under a magnifying glass (×20). The mean length of spots became shorter with the same descending order as the amino acid content of the leaves does. Accordingly, within the limits of our observations, it may be concluded that the more the content of dibasic amino acids is provided to the plants, the more the spotted area is apt to elongate, and that there exists some correlation between the susceptibility of rice plants to Helminthosporium blight and their amino acid content.
  • 奧 八郎
    1958 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 169-175
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2009/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Some oxidizing enzymes of Oryza sativa (rice plant), Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and Piricularia oryzae were investigated.
    (1) Presence of cytochrome oxidase was suggested in O. sativa, C. miyabeanus, and P. oryzae from the fact that the oxygen uptake was increased by addition of cytocrome-c into the hydroquinone-enzyme system, or into the p-phenylenediamine-enzyme system. High ascorbic acid oxidase activity was also found.
    (2) High polyphenol oxidase activity was found in C. miyabeanus and various plant polyphenols were oxidized by the same enzyme. The pH optimum of the enzyme was found to be 8.0. The enzyme was inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate or KCN. However, polyphenol oxidase activity was very low in O. sativa and P. oryzae.
    (3) Growth of C. miyabeanus was inhibited and brown pigmentation was observed when cultured on the media containing various polyphenols, namely chlorogenic acid, crude polyphenol mixture extracted from rice plant, and so on.
    (4) From the above results, polyphenol oxidase of the causal fungus seemed to play an important role on the appearance of the symptom, “brown spot formation”, of leaf blight disease in the rice plant.
  • 西村 正暘
    1958 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 176-180
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2009/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    萎凋性Fusarium病菌の代謝する萎凋毒素の研究は近時著しく発展し,毒素の検索時代からそれらの分離えと移行し,現在まで多数の関連物質が各種の萎凋病菌から単離されている。これらを化学的に分類すれば揮発性物質,多糖類,蛋白質およびpeptide,有機酸, quinone,その他と多種の化合物にわたり,またこれらの示す病徴からみればepinasty, wilting, leaf-necrosis, stem-flaccidityなどの発現に関係することが判明している。
    筆者は西瓜蔓割病菌を用いてその分泌する萎凋毒素の単離ならびにその害作用などについて逐次報告してきた。本報告ではその後に得た知見のうちpolysaccharide,亜硝酸塩およびethanolなどの産生とその害作用ならびに本菌が寄主細胞を侵害する際の萎凋毒素の役割を知る意味から,分生胞子の発芽直後のそれらの分泌状態について報告する。
    本実験の御指導と論文の御校閲を頂いた広江勇教授に深謝の意を表する。
  • 見里 朝正, 浅川 勝, 福永 一夫
    1958 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 181-184
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2009/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    筆者らはさきに稲熱病菌を被検菌とした阻止円法による植物体中の抗黴性抗生物質の微量定量法を確立し, Antimycin A, Blasticidin及びBlastmycinを含む水耕液中からソラマメ苗の根及び茎の切口を通じて吸収される抗生物質の量を測定した。今回は前記3種抗生物質のほか, Actidione, Eurocidin, Humidin並びに醋酸フェニール水銀の軟膏を作り,ソラマメ及びイネ苗の葉又は茎に塗布した際,これら抗生物質が葉又は茎の表皮から滲透し,植物組織の上下に移行する状態について調べたのでその結果を報告する。
  • 西 泰道
    1958 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 185-188
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2009/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    An attempt was made to show the inhibitory effect of substances secreted by aphids on feeding plants, upon the infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).
    Pressed juice of tobacco plants affected by TMV, was mixed with pressed sap from Japanese radish, turnip or tobacco, on which a number of aphid individuals belonging to Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae, had been fed for 24 hours. The virus juice was tested for infectivity by local lesion method using Nicotiana glutinosa. The juice produced local lesions on the half leaves of N. glutinosa far less in number than the control, viz., the virus juice mixed with sap from aphid free plants. When pressed sap from radish infected by radish mosaic virus, was mixed with juice of aphid-infested plants and inoculated immediately to radish seedlings, however, no inhibitory effect upon the virus was observed.
  • 松尾 卓見, 石上 孔一
    1958 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 189-192
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2009/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper deals with the wilt of Solanum melongena and its causal fungus Fusarium sp.
    The Morphological and cultural characters of this fungus agree with the description of F. oxysporum (Schl.) Snyder et Hansen. This fungus causes a vascular wilt of Solanum melongena, but is not pathogenic on the other plants of Solonaceae, e.g. Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Solanum tuberosum and Capsicum annuum. On the other hand, the various forms of F. oxysporum, that is, f. lycopersici, f. nicotianae, f. batatas, f. callistephi, f. conglutinans, f. lini, f. melonis, f. narcissi, f. niveum, f. pini, f. pisi, f. spinaciae, f. vasinfectum, f. cucumerinum, and the strains of F. oxysporum isolated from the root of wilted potato or the tuber of potato, etc. proved to be non-pathogenic on S. melongena. From these results, the writers propose the following name for the fungus.
    Fusarium oxysporum (Schl) Snyder et Hansen, f. melongenae Matuo et Ishigami, nom. nov. Hab. in vivis Solani melongeni, cetera ut in typo.
    The type culture is deposited in Fac. Text. Seric. Shinshu Univ., Ueda, Japan, which was isolated from Solanum melongena suffered from a vascular wilt disease.
  • 宮川 経邦
    1958 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 193-198
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2009/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    著者は前報において本邦の貯蔵温州蜜柑ではPenicillium菌による腐敗率が甚だ大きいが,そのうちでも特に緑黴病(P. digitatum)は発生率が高く,また貯蔵中の発生時期も青黴病(P. italicum)に比べて一般に早く,果実の腐敗速度も極めて速いことを報告した。更に両病原菌に対する柑果の罹病機作および生理について追究したいと考え,まず病原菌の営養摂取と果実成分との関連について実験を行い,P. digitatumは温州果皮と果肉成分とに対して異つた生育反応を示すことを認め,果実上における両病原菌の生育は果皮成分との間に密接な関連があることを知つた。
    この研究について九大農学部吉井教授より懇篤な御指導を戴き,徳島果試安達場長より終始御指導と御援助を戴いた。謹謝の意を表する。
  • 宮本 雄一
    1958 年 23 巻 4 号 p. 199-206
    発行日: 1958/11/30
    公開日: 2009/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is believed that barley yellow-mosaic virus (BYMV) is a distinct virus found only in Japan and that it differs from other soil-borne viruses of cereal crops. BYMV does not attack wheat and rye, it is not transmitted by insects and is not seed-borne. The writer has investigated continuously the mode of the disease and properties of BYMV. The experimental results obtained are summarized as follows:
    (1) In the variety tests of barley sown in BYMV-infested soil, most foreign varieties tested were infected with the virus as well as domestic varieties, with different infection rates or with varied grades of severity of symptoms. In these tests, it was shown that hulled varieties were more susceptible to the virus than hull-less varieties, particularly two-row barley varieties developed severe symptoms. It was observed in the tests, moreover, that the environmental conditions exerted effects upon the infection and expression of symptoms.
    (2) Among the tested plants of wild species of Hordeum, H. spontaneum (C.I. 4142) and H. agriocrithon plants were found susceptible, and intracellular inclusions (X-bodies) were recognized in the cells of the diseased plants but all the symptoms shown were rather mild.
    (3) In the linkage testers of barley plants, no plant belonging to the linkage groups I or VI was infected with BYMV. But the other plants belonging to the groups II-V and VII were susceptible to the virus with rather severe symptoms.
    (4) When pre-germinated seeds, which had already developed 2 or 3 roots, were planted in virus-infested soil out of doors, the infection rate became greater than in the cases of the planting of seeds, which were presoaked but had not yet developed roots. However, the infection rate of the former was not much higher than the latter as shown in the previously reported results, i.e., 2-3 times as high in glass-house tests. It was found, eventually, that the differences between the infection rates of the former and of the latter became greater when the tested plants were kept under unfavorable conditions for the occurrence of infection with the virus.
    (5) In the test of stability of BYMV, leaves of barley affected with the virus were clipped into 2-3cm pieces; they were put into a tight bottle containing calcium chloride crystals in the bottom. Then the bottle was placed and stored in an electric household refrigerator which was regulated at 0-2°C for the first one month and at 5-10°C for about two years. After that length of time, inoculation test was made by wiping water extracts of the dried tissues on leaves of seedlings. The infection rate of the dried tissues showed one-third value of the rate in the case when fresh diseased leaves were used as inoculum.
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