A culture of cooksfoot powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis DC.; culture D1) was isolated at Tokyo in 1985. No cleistothecium was observed in this fungus as previously described in Japan. The results of inoculation tests to 11 species from 8 genera of gramineous plants revealed that the host range of the fungus was limited to Dactylis sp.. This fungus was identified as a new type of forma specialis, E. graminis f. sp. dactylidis.
A previously undescribed rhabdovirus was found from East Indian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) showing streak on rootstalks and often chlorotic or ring spots on leaves, collected at Okayama prefecture in 1977. The rhabdovirus, ca. 90×300-340nm, having helical nucleocapsid with a pitch of 4.5nm, was detected in dip, partially purified and thin-sectioned preparations. Intracellular virus particles were observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of various cells. Nucleus of cells infected with the virus was characterized by the development of nuclear viroplasms. It suggested that the virus particles were maturated at the inner nuclear membrane and then passed through ER membrane into the cytoplasm. Since this is the first report of the virus isolate from Nymphaeaceae, as far as we know, the virus was designated lotus streak virus (LSV).
Three viruses were found from gloriosa (Gloriosa rothschildiana), cultivated at Chiba in 1979-1980, showing leaf symptoms of fleck, stripe mosaic or mottling. A rhabdovirus, ca. 69×316nm, having helical nucleocapsid with a pitch of 4.5nm, was consistently detected in dip and thin-sectioned preparations from the fleck plants. Nucleus of infected cells was characterized by the development of nuclear viroplasms. It suggested that the virus is a rhabdovirus of nuclear multiplication type. As such rhabdovirus has been so far undescribed in Liliaceae, the virus was designated as gloriosa fleck virus (GlFV). A potyvirus, ca. 13×760nm, accompanying cytoplasmic inclusions was detected from stripe mosaic or mottling plants. The virus was transmitted only to gloriosa by sap inoculation, and identified to be gloriosa stripe mosaic virus (GSMV) reported in Germany. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was also detected mainly from the plants showing mottling symptoms.
A new non-enveloped small bacilliform virus of ca. 28×120-130nm was found from canna plant (Canna sp.) showing systemic symptoms of veinal yellowing or necrosis, mottling and stunting collected at Iwai of Ibaragi prefecture in 1978. In thin sections, the virus particles were mainly observed as singles or aggregates in the cytoplasm of phloem cells. Virus-infected cells were also characterized by the development of vesicular structures. Since no small bacilliform virus has been reported from canna so far, the virus was designated as canna yellow mottle virus (CYMV). Small bacilliform viruses may be classified into two groups of cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) and orchid fleck virus (OFV) basing on their natures. The CYMV seemed to belong to the CSSV group.